Costa Rica, North & West

20 March - 4 April 2005


Neil Arnold The Travelling Naturalist

Willy Alfaro Horizontes





Costa Rica is undoubtedly a fine holiday venue. In two weeks we travelled one thousand km and visited a wide range of habitats from mountains to the shores of two oceans. A huge variety of plant and animal species were noted. This was due to fine leadership from Willy and to the energy and enthusiasm of the group. I am grateful to the group for their good cheer, to Willy for his patient guidance and to Graivin and Jorge for their friendliness and expert driving. I hope we will meet again in the near future.

Neil Arnold

April 2005



We flew to San Jose via Atlanta, USA. The trip went well and our passage through US immigration and customs was efficient and courteous, as was our entry into Costa Rica. We arrived at our hotel in the late evening.



WEATHER 4-7/8 Cumulus, sunny, E breeze. Dull on the mountain.

We awoke to the splendours of the hotel garden. Birds abounded, including Hoffman’s Woodpecker, Summer Tanager, Squirrel Cuckoo and Rose-breasted Grosbeak. We also enjoyed good views of the enchanting Variegated Squirrel.

After breakfast Jorge drove us to the Tapanti National Park. As it was the first day of the Easter holiday we made rapid progress through the streets of San Jose and were soon in the picturesque city of Cartago. On the outskirts we stopped briefly to scan the fresh water pools at Las Concavas. Here we found twenty Blue-winged Teal and a lone Northern Shoveler, the only records of the trip.

Within half an hour we entered the Orisi Valley, an area of coffee plantations dominated by rushing streams. Once at Tapanti, a huge tropical forest, we began to find a wide variety of bird species, including Green Thorntail, Coppery-headed Emerald, Red-headed Barbet and the very scarce Lineated Foliage-gleaner.

Lunch was taken at the Sendero la Oropendola, where the local trout was much appreciated. After lunch we made for Cartago and Route Two, the Pan-American Highway. This took us high into the mountains only to plunge down into the San Gerardo Valley at some 2,500 M a.s.l.

As soon as we turned off the main road we were in different world of lichen-covered trees clinging to steep slopes. Here we found the first high altitude birds of the trip: Sooty Robin, Long-tailed Silky Flycatchers, Flame-colored Tanagers, Large-footed Finch, Yellow-bellied Siskin, Volcano Hummingbird, Flame-throated Warbler and Mountain Elaenia. They were all lined up along the road as if they had known that we were coming!

Once settled into the Savegre Lodge we concentrated on the bird feeders. Grey-tailed Mountain Gem, Magnificent and Scintillant Hummingbirds competed with Green Violet-ear for the sugar solution.



WEATHER A.M. clear, sunny,still. PM heavy rain in the valley, mist at altitude

The morning was spent exploring the river, forest and open fields of the Gerardo valley. American Dipper, Torrent Tyrannulet and Black Phoebe were found on the river bank and a host of species in the forest. Black-throated Grosbeak, Collared Redstart and Yellow-thighed Finch were memorable. Whilst we watched a flock of migrant raptors flew overhead; one hundred and twenty Broad-winged Hawks were joined by at least twenty Swainson’s Hawks and one or two Red-tailed Hawks. This was a spectacular example of visible migration, all these birds flying to North America.

After breakfast we explored a different part of the valley, finding four Sulphur-winged Parakeets at rest, a Red-legged Honeycreeper which was way beyond its usual geographical range, and a Ruddy Tree- runner, amongst many other species. Just before lunch we noted two Swallow-tailed Kites, a migrant from South America. The little Alfaro’s Squirrel also came to light.

In the afternoon it rained so we drove to the misty height of the Cerro de la Muerte. We drove along the rough track to the summit (at 3,500 M a.s.l.) where we found Volcano Junco, Black-billed Nightingale-thrush and a Timberline Wren. Our next port of call was Villa Mills, the abandoned road camp which was used when Route Two was built. Here amongst the flowering bushes we found yet more high altitude birds.

The only disappointing aspect of the day was that we had failed to see a Resplendent Quetzal, despite having spent some time watching two nests.



WEATHER AM clear and sunny. PM developing cloud, humid at sae level, a breeze

A pre-breakfast walk brought us into contact with a pair of sparkling Emerald Toucanets, a Black Guan and, at last, a Resplendent Quetzal. After we had been watching a nest for some while, a female Quetzal poked its head out of the nest hole, looked around and then flew to a nearby perch. As the bird was preening we were able to admire the fine plumage from many different angles. Eventually the bird returned to the nest and we went away with a sense of achievement.

The day was to be spent in a leisurely drive into the General Valley to Dominical on the Pacific coast and then along rough roads to Carara. Our first stop was at La Georgina, just below the summit of the Cerro de la Muerte. Here we spent a while watching hummingbirds at the local café. The star of this exercise was the stunning Fiery-throated Hummingbird. As we descended to San Isidro el General, lowland species began to dominate. We were soon enjoying views of parrots, herons, swallows, tanagers and toucans. Other notable species included a lone Laughing Falcon, Ospreys and six Swallow-tailed Kites.

We ate lunch at the estuary in Dominical. We were soon being entertained by Green, Little Blue and Tricolored Herons. Willets, a Greater Yellowlegs and Spotted Sandpipers soon reminded us that we were on a migration route. As Brown Pelicans and Magnificent Frigatebirds flew overhead our attention was drawn to the first Green Kingfisher of the trip.

As we moved north along a road surrounded by oil palm and banana plantations we kept discovering more birds. Both Ringed and Amazon Kingfishers were seen as we passed canals designed to drain the plantations. Perhaps the most enjoyable sighting of the trip was a Bare-throated Tiger-heron sitting by a roadside ditch. (Little did we know that we were to see many more individuals in the coming days.)

As we passed the estuary of the Seagre River we noted three Ringed, two Green and two Amazon Kingfishers. Roadside Hawks lived up to their name and were seen by the roadside as was a fine Ferruginous Pygmy Owl. As we approached Quepos a cheer rang out - we had reached tarmac road again.

As we reached the tourist town of Jaco, Willy took us on a mystery tour. It transpired that he had done some contract ecological surveys for the Marriot Hotel. On entering the grounds we soon directed our attention to the small lakes on the golf course. Least Grebes soon appeared. As we left the site we scanned the drainage channels finding a Roseate Spoonbill, White Ibis and a variety of herons.

We settled quickly into the spacious luxury of the Villa Lapas Hotel. Whilst eating our dinner we were surrounded by calling Pauraque.



WEATHER 0-4/8 Cu. Fine, breeze. PM torrential rain showers

An early morning walk around the grounds of the hotel was very productive. The first delight of the day was the fly-by of a pair of very noisy Scarlet Macaws. Then a variety of warblers, flycatchers, doves and thrushes came to light. The gardens also proved to be a haven for a variety of reptiles and amphibians including Green and Spiny-tailed Iguana, Basilisk, Yellowbelly Gecko, Cane Toad, Green Poison-arrow Frog, Tink Frog and Masked Treefrog. On the way to breakfast we also discovered a fascinating group of mammals, five Brown Tent-making Bats hiding in a ‘tent’ made by biting the base of a leaf stem to make it droop.

By 08.00 we were entering the Carara National Park. Even before we passed through the gates we were watching a Plain Xenops, a very elusive forest bird. Then came a Blue-black Grosbeak, Slaty-tailed and Baird’s Trogons, Red-and-white and Rufous-breasted Wrens and Rufous-tailed Jacamar. As if that was not enough splendour we then found both Orange-collared and Red-capped Manakins. As we watched a variety of hummingbirds a Tiny Hawk flashed along the path at barely more than head height. Then we had an opportunity to study a collection of ant birds. First Black-headed Antshrike made an appearance, closely followed by Dot-winged Antwren, Dusky Antbird, Barred Antshrike and Chestnut-backed Antbird. Then birds of prey caught our eye: Roadside Hawk, Plumbeous Kite and White-tailed Hawk.

Eventually we came to the small lake hidden in the forest. This stretch of water was dominated by herons, including roosting Boat-billed Herons. We also had close views of a Roseate Spoonbill, a small flock of Black-necked Stilts and a flock of Black-bellied Whistling-ducks. On our way back to the coach we came across a very lively troupe of White-faced Capuchin Monkeys and a lone Northern Royal Flycatcher.

After lunch we had a siesta… well most of us did; some went out in the rain and found a Whiskered Puffbird, just reward for such endeavour.

We then intended to walk more forest trails but torrential rain caused a change of plan. We drove the short distance to the estuary of the Tarcoles River. As we arrived we were greeted by Yellow-naped Parrots. The muddy banks of the estuary held a variety of waders, Yellow-crowned Night-herons, Brown Pelicans and Ospreys.

By 17.00 we were on the Tarcoles road bridge watching American Crocodiles, an American Purple Gallinule and Red-winged Blackbirds. As it was the breeding time for Scarlet Macaws the evening flight to the National Park was somewhat disappointing: only two birds appeared. We had the consolation though that we had seen half a dozen birds in the forest during the day. As the light dimmed Lesser Nighthawks took to the air and we took to our heels; it was time for a rest and a well-earned meal.

That evening we said goodbye to our stand -in driver, Jorge and greeted our usual driver Greivin who is not only a good driver but a knowledgeable and spirited birdwatcher.



WEATHER 0-4/8 Cu, fine, breeze

The early morning walk produced sightings of Northern Barred Woodcreeper, Orange-billed Sparrow Blue-crowned Motmot and a small flock of Painted Buntings.

By 09.30 we were back at the Tarcoles Estuary watching wetland species including Semipalmated and Grey Plovers and Turnstone. We then made a brief stop at the Tarcoles Bridge.

By 10.30 we were en route for the province of Guanacaste. Within twenty minutes, though, we were parked by a small park in the little town of Ortina. We were then invited to have a look around the park. Within a minute we were staring up at a magnificent Black-and-white Owl perched in a tree. Having found such a prize we were then shown a Two-toed Sloth hanging upside down in the next tree. The photographers had a field day.

As we drove towards La Ensenada in the ‘Refugio National de Vida Silvestre’ we were obviously entering a much drier habitat. The roadside kept giving up its wildlife. Mantled Howler Monkeys jeered at us from tall trees as we discovered Banded Wren, Turquoise-crowned Motmot, Northern Beardless Tyrannulet, Sulphur-breasted Flycatcher, Blue Grosbeak, Stripe-headed Sparrow and Streak-backed Oriole. We also had a brief glimpse of an Indigo Snake.

On our arrival at La Ensenada we went straight to the salt pans to take advantage of the fact that it was a holiday and therefore there was no disturbance. At the salt pans we found ten species of waders including Wilson’s Plover and Short-billed Dowitchers. The area was also a haven for a number of species of herons and songbirds. At dusk we saw yet more Lesser Nighthawks. Twenty Mantled Howler Monkeys greeted us at the lodge as did a covey of Spot-bellied Bobwhite.



WEATHER 1-3/8 Ci, sunny, breeze

The lodge is surrounded by grassland, scattered scrub and trees. The coastline, two hundred metres away, consists of steep, low cliffs, at the base of which are mangroves growing on a gravel shore. Consequently the patchwork of habitats harboured many species of plants and animals. The most notable birds were Melodious Blackbird, Scrub Euphonia, Mangrove Warbler and a variety of wetland species including Neotropic Cormorant. Just before breakfast we came across Cinnamon Hummingbirds feeding in the flowerbeds, a pair of White-throated Magpie-jays stealing the butter and bread from the tables and a fine Pacific Screech-owl that Graivin had discovered in a nearby tree. (What it is to have a driver who knows the lie of the land!)

At 08.30 we left to drive to the River Bebedaro which abuts the Palo Verde National Park. Before we had even left the estate we found an elegant Double-striped Thick-knee standing motionless in the shade of a huge tree. As we made our way north we also noted seven soaring Wood Storks.

The boat trip on the River Bebedaro was very relaxing. We had fine views of Green and Spiny-tailed Iguana, the Jesus Christ Lizard (Basilisk) which runs across the water surface, White-faced Capuchin and Mantled Howler Monkeys, and two roosting groups of White lined Sac-winged Bats. Birds were represented by Bare-throated Tiger-heron, Solitary Sandpiper, Black-crowned Night-heron and Common Black Hawk..

After an excellent lunch we made for the Palo Verde National Park. As we approached the wetlands we were disappointed to find that they had dried up much earlier than usual; consequently we took to the open woodland. The dryness of the area can be summed up by the discovery of a flock of fifty White-collared Seedeaters feeding where there should have been wetland species. Just as we were about to leave a Scarlet Macaw flew over. This was exciting as it is a rare bird in the Park. We also had a brief view of a King Vulture in one of its strongholds. We were a little disappointed with the afternoon but we did not know what lay ahead.

As we drove through the forest we spotted a White-tailed Deer eating the fallen fruit of a mango tree. Nearby were others. The great surprise was to come next though. Near a young deer was a female Greater Curassow. Eventually we found seven females and five males. Thankfully they allowed us to leave the bus and quietly follow them through the forest. The discovery of this most elusive species raised our spirits.

We drove on to the ‘wetlands.’ As we drew near the evening sun glinted on a pool of shallow water. The wetlands were wet! By standing on a bank we were able to see feeding White Ibis and Wood Storks. Then a flock of Black-bellied Whistling-duck took to the air. This action disturbed two white birds that had been hiding in the rushes. They immediately began to exercise their wings; we were watching two adult Jabiru, the most sought-after stork species in the neotropics.

As we drove through the forest towards the exit we were to get yet another surprise; a Thicket Tinamou, another elusive species, calmly walked across the road into the forest edge.

As it grew dark Graivin drove the bus along the irrigation dikes revealing a variety of wildlife. First we saw a Barn Owl and then several Common Pauraque. We then saw a series of mammals: a Grey Fox, Great Bulldog Bats fishing, and a Common Opossum. As we approached the main road home we saw another Barn Owl.

After yet another fine restaurant meal we wended our way ‘home’. It is hard to imagine a more varied day in the field.



WEATHER AM 4/8 Cu. bright ,still. PM 8/8 Cu. Dull, still. Heavy showers

The early morning walk revealed a number of significant bird species: the local Canivet’s Emerald, Spot-breasted Oriole and Panama Flycatcher.

By 08.00 we were on board a tractor and trailer ready to make a tour of the estate. It is surprising what can be found on a tractor ride. A Steely-vented Hummingbird was noted and two Lesser Nighthawks were found perched in a tree, then an Ivory-billed Woodcreeper came to light. Scrub Euphonia, White-tailed and Common Black Hawks were also noted.

After lunch we set off for the Arenal area. As we were passing spectacular yellow flowering Yellow Cortez trees we saw a perched Bay-winged Hawk.

Once past the town of Tilaran we were once again on the Caribbean slopes of the country. As we drove along the northern shores of Lake Arenal we stopped to look for wildlife. Northern Rough -winged Swallows were seen as were Cinnamon Becard and two Swallow-tailed Kites.

In the late afternoon we stopped at ‘Toad Hall,’ an excellent gift shop, to buy presents. This was not our only motive, however: the garden was full of exotic birds. Sightings of Crested Guan and Grey-headed Chachalaca were soon followed by those of Black-cheeked and Smoky-brown Woodpeckers, Little Hermit, Green Honeycreeper, Black-cowled Oriole and Red-lored Parrots. We had to drag ourselves away!

While we were at ‘Toad Hall’ there was a violent downpour. This meant that by the time we reached the Arenal Volcano, one of the most active in the world, we could see the whole cone apart from the rim, from which smoke could be seen pouring down the slopes.

Once at Volcano Lodge we walked to dinner. As we emerged from the restaurant later in the evening the sky was clear and moonlit and the outline of the cone could be seen in its entirety. This was a rare sight indeed.



WEATHER 8/8/ Cu. Showers, dull, still

The gardens of the lodge were the focus of the early morning wildlife watching. Mealy Parrot, Green-breasted Mango, White-necked Jacobin and Lineated Woodpecker were the stars of the morning.

We set off for Selva Verde at 08.00 but we went in the ‘wrong’ direction. This was one of Will’s surprises. Within minutes we were overlooking a wet meadow. After a brief search we found two adult Southern Lapwing and two chicks. As this is a species that has only colonised Costa Rica in the past five years, this was a very important breeding record. Southern Lapwing isn’t even pictured in the field guide!

By mid morning we had climbed to 2,000 M a.s.l. at Bajos del Toro Amarillo. Here in the middle elevation forest we were reacquainted with such species as Black Guan, Slate-throated Redstart and Yellow-thighed Finch. We also discovered Hairy Woodpecker, Yellow-bellied Elaenia and the very local White-throated Flycatcher and Golden-browed Chlorophonia.

By the time we had settled into the lodge at Selva Verde the light was fading but we managed to find a sparkling Sunbittern on the river bank, White-breasted Woodwren in the forest and the delightful Green Poison-arrow Frog and Strawberry Poison-dart Frog. This inspired us to expect great things on the following day.



WEATHER 5-8/8 Cu. Heavy showers, still

By 06.15 we entered the drive to the research station of the Organization for Tropical Studies at La Selva. For the next two and a half hours we walked the four hundred metres to the gate of the station. In that time we recorded seventy-five species of birds. Some of the most impressive species were Black-faced Grosbeak, Long-billed Gnatwren, Rufous-winged Woodpecker, Yellow-tailed Oriole and the scarce migrant Eastern Kingbird.

Once inside the research station we met Kenneth, our local guide. We were soon in the forest watching wrens, woodcreepers, thrushes and trogons. A Grey Catbird represented the migrants from North America, while Snowy Cotinga and a nesting Olive- backed Quail-dove were rare local species.

We were also lucky enough to see a herd of five White-collared Peccary; we also picked up their very strong scent. The reptile of the day was a spectacular Emerald Basilisk.

It had been a very special day in this essentially private enclave.



WEATHER 4/8 Ci. Sunny, breeze

The day started with sightings of a migrant Wood Thrush and a local Red-throated Ant-tanager.

By 06.20 we were back at La Selva. Things were different though from our experience of yesterday; due to Willy’s reputation within the organization he had managed to gain permission to walk the trails inside the station hours before groups were usually allowed to enter.

As a result of our early start we found three very scarce species of birds: White-collared Puffbird, Chestnut-coloured and Cinnamon Woodpeckers. High overhead we also saw White Hawk, Broad-winged hawk and a spectacular King Vulture. Further searching brought to light Golden-winged Warbler, Bay Wren, Broad-billed Motmot and Dusky-faced Tanager. A Coati and two huge mantids also attracted our attention, the latter being thoroughly photographed. Eventually we dragged ourselves away.

After lunch at La Quinta Lodge we returned to Selva Verde to rest. By 16.00 we were out on the trails again watching Sunbittern, Mealy Parrots, Collared Aracari and the most attractive Yellow-crowned Euphonia and Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer. On crossing the swinging bridge over the river we rigorously obeyed the command in Spanish: ‘NO BALANCEARSE.’

After dinner we drove to the La Quinta area in search of owls, but without success.



WEATHER 1/8 Cu. Sun breeze

We spent the day making the journey to Pachira Lodge, Tortuguero. We drove over metalled roads until we reached the outskirts of Siquirres. Here we took to unmade roads until we reached the tiny port of Caño Blanco. From here we were whisked away in a fast launch. The speed of progress didn’t lend itself to wildlife watching but we did manage to see a male Red-breasted Blackbird as we passed an area of open grassland. Soon the river banks were cloaked in forest.

On our arrival at the lodge we discovered a singing Purple-throated Fruitcrow, a birds that usually lives deep in the forest.

By 15.00 we joined Giovanni, our boatman for our first trip into the Tortuguero National Park. We were soon on a forest trail. Almost immediately we came across a swarm of army ants. Army ants displace all in their path so they are often followed by antbirds which eat the fleeing invertebrates. A careful search of the undergrowth revealed Bi-colored Antbird, Chestnut-backed Antbird and Western Slaty Antshrike. Many other forest species were also noted.

The most unexpected mammal of the trip joined us at dinner: a Water Opossum dashed through the dining room at full pelt.



WEATHER 8/8/ Cu. Showers. Sunny afternoon. Stormy evening

This was a unique day, a day in which we enjoyed three boat trips: yet another new experience in my long leading career.

Our first trip started at 05.30, accompanied by a chorus of Mantled Howler Monkeys. The first really thrilling moment was the appearance of an American Pygmy Kingfisher which was photographed at point blank range. Then we were shown a Great Potoo hiding on a huge tree. We then glimpsed a Neotropical River Otter.

At 10.15 we were off again. The highlights of our trip to Caño Harold were a Great Black Hawk, a White Hawk, Double-toothed Kite, two sightings of the scarce Green-and-rufous Kingfisher and two Green Ibis. Perhaps the most exciting moments were supplied by several sightings of Sungrebe, prolonged views of a Neotropical River Otter, Spider Monkeys and Mantled Howler Monkeys. From my own point of view, though, the discovery of three species of herons was the pivotal point of the trip. First we found a fine Bare-throated Tiger-heron, and then a Rufescent Tiger-heron, but the real prize was an Agami Heron in full breeding plumage; all were close. We held our breath as we watched.

At 15.00 we boarded the boat again. We made for the Caño Palma and the Rio Suerte. Herons were common, as were kingfishers. At one point we came across a huge American Crocodile surrounded by Black Vultures. Smaller Spectacled Cayman were also noted. We also saw a mature Sungrebe standing on a log showing off its pale lobed feet. White-faced Capuchin also performed for us. As we returned to the Quay a Bat Falcon flew overhead. It had been a remarkable day.



WEATHER 4-7/8 Cu. Fine, breeze

After an entertaining morning walk we sped to Caño Blanco in a launch.

By 10.30 we were driving through open grassland. Red-winged Blackbirds, a Short-tailed Hawk and an Olive-crowned Yellowthroat joined our collection of birds. We also had a brief view of a Bird-eating Snake. After lunch at Guapiles we drove through the Braulio Carrillo National Park. We stopped at an abandoned butterfly farm 800 M a.s.l. We watched the fine display of flowers, eventually discovering Blue-throated Goldentail, Black-crested Coquette and Snowcap.

Once at the Bougainvillea Hotel some of us searched the garden for birds, discovering the very attractive White-eared Ground-sparrow, and then the very scarce Prevost’s Ground-sparrow. What a finish to the trip!



WEATHER 3/8 Cu. Sunny, breeze

An early morning walk in the garden was wonderful. We noted White-eared Ground-sparrow, a glimpse of Prevost’s Ground-sparrow and six Crimson-fronted Parakeet.

After breakfast we set off for home via San Jose, Atlanta and Gatwick. The trip home was very smooth, especially through immigration and customs at all points.

I hope you have all enjoyed this trip as much as I have..

Best wishes

Neil Arnold

April 2005























TINAMOUS Tinamidae

Great Tinamou Tinamus major Heard in CAR,SELV AND SEL

Thicket Tinamou Crypturellus cinnamomeus One PAL

GREBES Podicipedidae

Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus Six Jaco


Anhinga Anhinga anhinga Widespread in wetlands [22]


Neotropic (Olivaceous) Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (olivaceus) Very local [12]


Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis Flocks at coastal locations especially PAC (100)


Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens Widespread PAC coast. One TOR


Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias Scattered records, nowhere numerous [8]

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Common and widespread (600)DOM

American Great White Egret Casmerodius albus Common [106]

Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor Widespread but uncommon [13]

Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea Common[55]

Snowy Egret Egretta thula Common [45]

Green Heron Butorides virescens Common [34]

Agami Heron Agamia agami A stunning adult TOR

Yellow-crowned Night-heron Nyctanassa violacea Common near the coast [29]

Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax Five PAL

Boat-billed Heron Cochlearius cochlearius Eight CAR and one TOR

Bare-throated Tiger-heron Tigrisoma mexicanum Surprisingly common and widespread [24]

Rufescent tiger-heron Tigrisoma lineatum Three TOR

STORKS Ciconiidae

Wood Stork Mycteria americana Forty PAL and one TOR

Jabiru Jabiru mycteria Two PAL


Green Ibis Mesembrinibis cayennensis Two TOR

American White Ibis Eudocimus albus Common PAC [142]

Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus One SAL

Roseate Spoonbill Ajaia ajaia Six sightings PAC


Black-bellied Whistling-duck Dendrocygna autumnalis CON (14) and seventy eight CAR. Fifty PAL


Blue-winged Teal Anas discors Twenty CON

Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata A duck CON


Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura Common and widespread

American Black Vulture Coragyps atratus Common and widespread

King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa One CAR and one SEL


Osprey Pandion haliaetus Widespread over water [20]


American Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus Migrant over the mountains: nine and three ARE

White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus Four scattered records

Double-toothed Kite Harpagus bidentatus One TOR

Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea One CAR and one ENS

Tiny Hawk Accipiter superciliosus One CAR

White Hawk Leucopternis albicollis One SEL and one TOR

Common Black-hawk Buteogallus anthracinus Three PAL-ENS and two TOR

Great Black-hawk Buteogallus urubitinga Two TOR

Harris's (Bay-winged) Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus One ENS

Gray(-lined) Hawk Asturina nitida One DOM, two ARE and one SEL

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris Nine PAC

Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus Flocks of 120 GER and seven CAR. Other scattered records

Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus One TOR

Swainson's Hawk Buteo swainsoni A flock of twenty with Broad-winged Hawks, GER

White-tailed Hawk Buteo albicaudatus Three records PAC

Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis Four records GER


Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway Nine PAC and one CAR

Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima Sixteen records PAC

Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans One DOM

Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis One TOR


Gray-headed Chachalaca Ortalis cinereiceps Eight ARE and two SEL

Crested Guan Penelope purpurascens Three ARE and four SEL

Black Guan Chamaepetes unicolor One GER and two BAJ

Great Curassow Crax rubra Twelve PAL


Crested Bobwhite Colinus cristatus Coveys of five and four ENS


Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus Eight CON and several TOR

American Purple Gallinule Porphyrula martinicus One CAR, one PAL and one TOR

American Coot Fulica americana Four CON, one TOR


Sungrebe Heliornis fulica Nine records TOR


Sunbittern Eurypyga helias A pair with a nest SELV


Northern Jacana Jacana spinosa Widespread [58]


Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus Common PAC (40) and four TOR [73]


Double-striped Thick-knee Burhinus bistriatus One ENS


Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis A breeding pair ARE, perhaps the only pair in Costa Rica?

Grey (Black-bellied) Plover Pluvialis squatarola Common PAC shores and saltpan ENS (65) [77]

Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Twenty ENS

Wilson's Plover Charadrius wilsonia At least eight ENS


Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus Common PAC shores. (102)ENS [112]

Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca Three CAR and one TOR

Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes Two ENS

Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria One PAL

Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia Very widespread [53]

Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus Seven DOM and seventy five ENS

(Ruddy) Turnstone Arenaria interpres Two CAR and eight sightings ENS

Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus Twenty two ENS

Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri Thirty CAR-ENS

Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla Up to nine CAR and fifty ENS

GULLS Laridae

Laughing Gull Larus atricilla Common PAC


Royal Tern Sterna maxima Noted PAC and CAR


Rock Dove (Feral Pigeon) Columba livia Common near habitation

Band-tailed Pigeon Columba fasciata Common GER [120]

Pale-vented Pigeon Columba cayennensis Scattered records in the lowlands

Red-billed Pigeon Columba flavirostris Scattered records in the lowlands

Ruddy Pigeon Columba subvinacea One sighting GER

Short-billed Pigeon Columba nigrirostris Mainly heard but seen CAR and TO

White-winged Dove Zenaida asiatica Scattered records in the lowlands

Common Ground-dove Columbina passerine Only noted ENS, ARE and BAJ

Ruddy Ground-dove Columbina talpacoti Common PAC, less so SEL and TO

Inca Dove Scardafella inca Common PAC

Blue Ground-dove Claravis pretiosa Heard CAR

White-tipped Dove Lepotila verreauxi Scattered records PAC

Olive-backed Quail-dove Geotrygon veraguensis One on a nest SEL


Scarlet Macaw Ara macao Twenty sightings CAR and one PAL

Crimson-fronted Parakeet Aratinga finschi Six BOU

Olive-throated Parakeet Aratinga nana Sixteen SEV

Orange-fronted Parakeet Aratinga canicularis Flocks PAC and CAR

Sulphur-winged Parakeet Pyrrhura hoffmanni Four GER

Orange-chinned Parakeet Brotogeris jugularis Common on both slopes (50) ENS

White-crowned Parrot Pionus senilis Scattered records CAR and PAC

White-fronted Parrot Amazona albifrons Thirty six records ENS and PAL

Red-lored Parrot Amazona autumnalis Common CAR

Yellow-naped Parrot Amazona auropalliata Twenty two records of this endangred species PAC

Mealy Parrot (Amazon) Amazona farinosa Eleven records CAR lowlands


Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani Three DOM

Groove-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris Common throughout


Striped Cuckoo Tapera naevia Heard CAR


Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana Eight scattered records


Common Barn-Owl Tyto alba Two PAL


Pacific Screech-owl Otus cooperi One ENS

Black-and-white Owl Ciccaba nigrolineata One Ortina

Ferruginous Pygmy-owl Glaucidium brasilianum One DOM and heard ENS

POTOOS Nyctibiidae

Great Potoo Nyctibius grandis One TOR


Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis Twelve CAR,at least twelve ENS and one TOR

Common Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis Heard CAR, fve PAL and heard ARE


Chestnut-collared Swift Streptoprocne rutila Twenty CAR

White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris Flocks over TAP,GERARE and SEL

Band-rumped Swift Chaetura spinicauda Twenty CAR

Gray-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris Common CAR

Vaux's Swift Chaetura vauxi Ten BOU


Bronzy Hermit Glaucis aenea One SEL

Band-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes ruckeri Four records CAR and one SELV

(Western) Long-billed (Long-tailed) Hermit Phaethornis longirostris (superciliosus) Two CAR and six records SEL/SELV

Stripe-throated (Little) Hermit Phaethornis strigularis (longuemareus) Six scattered records

Scaly-breasted Hummingbird Phaeochroa cuvierii Six CAR

White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora Four records ARE,SELV/SEL and TOR

Green Violet-ear Colibri thalassinus At least four GER

Green-breasted Mango Anthracothorax prevostii One ARE and one TOR

Violet-headed Hummingbird Klais guimeti Only SEL and TOR

Black-crested Coquette Paphosia helenae One BRA

Green Thorntail Discosura conversii A male TAP

Canivet's (Fork-tailed) Emerald Chlorostilbon canivetii One ENS

(Violet-) Crowned Woodnymph Thalurania colombica Single records SEL/SELV

Fiery-throated Hummingbird Panterpe insignis Six MUE

Blue-throated Goldentail Hylocharis eliciae One BRA

Steely-vented Hummingbird Amazilia saucerrottei One ARE

Cinnamon Hummingbird Amazilia rutila Common ENS and PAL

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Amazilia tzacatl Common except in the mountains

Coppery-headed Emerald Elvira cupreiceps One female TAP

Snowcap Microchera albocoronata A male BRA

Bronze-tailed (Red-footed) Plumeleteer Chalybura urochrysia One SELV

Gray-tailed Mountain-gem Lampornis cinereicauda Several GER

Magnificent Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens Several GER and one BAJ

Purple-crowned Fairy Heliothryx barroti One CAR and one SEL

Volano Hummingbird Selasphorus flammula Only at altitude MUE and GER

Scintillant Hummingbird Selasphorus scintilla Common GER


Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno Two females GER

Slaty-tailed Trogon Trogon massena Five records CAR,SELV/SEL

Baird's Trogon Trogon bairdii One CAR

Black-headed Trogon Trogon melanocephalus Five records ENS

Black-throated Trogon Trogon rufus A pair SEL and one TOR

Violaceous Trogon Trogon violaceus Heard TOR. It is incredible that we did'nt see this common bird!


Ringed Kingfisher Ceryle torquata Twenty one records PAC/CAR

Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona Ten records PAC/CAR

Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana Twenty two records PAC/CAR

Green and Rufous Kingfisher Chloroceryle inda Two sightings TOR

American Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aenea Four sightings TOR


Broad-billed Motmot Electron platyrhynchum One SEL

Turquoise-browed Motmot Eumomota superciliosa Eighteen sightings ENS/PAL

Rufous Motmot Baryphthengus martii Heard SEL

Blue-crowned Motmot Motmotus momota Two CAR and one SAN JOSE


Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda Two CAR and one TOR


White-necked Puffbird Notharchus macrorhynchos One SEL

White-whiskered Puffbird Malacoptila panamensis One CAR


Red-headed Barbet Eubucco bourcierii A male TAP


Emerald Toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus Two GER

Collared Aracari Pteroglossus torquatus Seventeen records SEL/SELV and TOR

Fiery-billed Aracari Pteroglossus frantzii Two sightings CAR

Keel-billed Toucan Ramphastos sulfuratus Common CAR lowlands

Chestnut-mandibled Toucan Ramphastos swainsonii Common throughout [40]


Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus A flock of ten GER

Black-cheeked Woodpecker Melanerpes pucherani Seven records from ENS to TOR

Red-crowned Woodpecker Melanerpes rubricapillus Sixteen records DOM/CAR

Hoffmann's Woodpecker Melanerpes hoffmannii Common in the lowlands CAR/PAC

Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus One SEL

Smoky-brown Woodpecker Veniliornis fumigatus One ARE

Rufous-winged Woodpecker Piculus simplex Two sightings SEL

Cinnamon Woodpecker Celeus loricatus Two SEL and one TOR

Chestnut-colored Woodpecker Celeus castaneus One SEL

Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus One ARE

Pale-billed Woodpecker Campephilus guatemalensis Widespread, seven records


Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa One SEL

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus Three records SEL

Northern Barred-woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae (certhia) One CAR and one SEL

Cocoa Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus susurrans One CAR, eight sightings SEL/SELV, one TOR and one BRA

Ivory-billed Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus flavigaster One ENS

Spotted Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus erythropygius One ARE

Streak-headed Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes souleyetii Four sightings SEL and one TOR

Spot-crowned Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes affinis Six CAR


Ruddy Treerunner Margarornis rubiginosus Four GER

Lineated Foliage-gleaner Syndactyla subalaris One TAP

Plain Xenops Xenops minutus One CAR


Fasciated Antshrike Cymbilaimus lineatus A nesting pair SEL

Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus A pair CAR and one SELV

Black-hooded Antshrike Thamnophilus bridgesi Seven records CAR

Western Slaty Antshrike Thamnophilus atrinucha Three records TOR

Dot-winged Antwren Microrhopias quixensis Four CAR

Dusky Antbird Cercomacra tyrannina Six records CAR and three records SEL

Chestnut-backed Antbird Myrmeciza exsul One CAR, one SEL and one TOR

Bi-colored Antbird Gymnopithys bicolor One TOR


Silvery-fronted Tapaculo Scytalopus argentifrons Heard GER


Mistletoe (Paltry) Tyrannulet Zimmerius vilissimus Two TAP and several ARE,SEL,SELV

Northern Beardless Tyrannulet Camptostoma imberbe One ENS

Greenish Elaenia Myiopagis viridicata One CAR

Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster Two ARE

Mountain Elaenia Elaenia frantzii Several records GER

Torrent Tyrannulet Serpophaga cinerea Nine sightings GER

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Mionectes oleagineus One CAR, heard SEL

Black-capped Pygmy-tyrant Myiornis atricapillus One SEL, heard SELV

Scale-crested Pygmy-tyrant Lophotriccus pileatus One TAP

Northern Bentbill Oncostoma cinereigulare Three sightings, one bird nest building CAR

Common Tody-flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum Common and widespread

Yellow-olive Flycatcher Tolmomyias sulphurescens Widespread [9]

Northern Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus Two CAR

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus One CAR

Dark Pewee Contopus lugubris One GER

Eastern Wood-pewee Contopus virens One TOR

Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus Two TAP,four TOR

White-throated Flycatcher Empidonax albogularis One BAJ

Yellowish Flycatcher Empidonax flavescens One GER

Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans Five records GER and one ARE

Bright-rumped Attila Attila spadiceus Eight records PAC/CAR of this difficult to find species

Rufous Mourner Rhytipterna holerythra Four TOR

Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer One TAP and three SEL

Panama Flycatcher Myiarchus panamensis One ENS

Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus One CAR, heard CAR

Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus Four sightings ENS

Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus Common throughout

Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarhynchus pitangua Scattered records PAC/CAR

Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis Noted throughout

Gray-capped Flycatcher Myiozetetes granadensis Seven sightings CAR and one SEL

White-ringed Flycatcher Conopias albovittata Two SEL

Golden-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes hemichrysus Heard BAJ

Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus Ten records PAC/CAR

Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes luteiventris Three records ENS

Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius Scattered records CAR,SEL and TOR

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus Common throughout

Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus forficata Twenty records ENS/PAL

Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana Two TAP

Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus lyrannus One SEL, a scarce migrant

Cinnamon Becard Pachyramphus cinnamomeus One ARE, three SEL and two TOR

Rose-throated Becard
Pachyramphus aglaiae Fifteen records CAR/ENS

Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata Common CAR, ENS and SEL

Black-crowned Tityra Tityra inquisitor Two ENS, three SEL and one BRA


White-collared Manakin Manacus candei Common CAR

Orange-collared Manakin Manacus aurantiacus Three sightings CAR

Red-capped Manakin Pipra mentalis One CAR


Snowy Cotinga Carpodectes nitidus Two SEL

Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurat Two TOR


Mangrove Swallow Tachycineta albilinea Common near mangroves

Gray-breasted Martin Progne chalybea Common CAR

Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca Common TAP,GER,ARE,BRA and BO

Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis Only ARE

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Common except in the highlands

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Common except in the highlands. Two hundred gathering at DOM


Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher Ptilogonys caudatus Thirty two sightings GER


American Dipper Cinclus mexicanus One GER and one heard BAJ


Rufous-naped Wren Campylorhynchus rufinucha Twenty sightings CAR/ENS

Band-backed Wren Campylorhynchus zonatus Two sightings SEL

Black-throated Wren Thryothorus atrogularis One SEL

Black-bellied Wren Thryothorus fasciatoventris One heard CAR

Rufous-breasted Wren Thryothorus rutilus Three CAR

Bay Wren Thryothorus nigricapillus Two SEL, heard TOR

Stripe-breasted Wren Thryothorus thoracicus One SEL, one SELV, heard TOR

Banded Wren Thryothorus pleurostictus Four sightings ENS

Rufous-and-white Wren Thryothorus rufalbus Three CAR

Plain Wren Thryothorus modestus Heard SEL but seen BOU

House Wren Troglodytes aedon Widespread in the lowlands

Ochraceous Wren Troglodytes ochraceus One GER

Timberline Wren Thryorchilus browni One MEU

White-breasted Wood-wren Henicorhina leucosticta Heard widely CAR, one SEL and one TOR

Gray-breasted Wood-wren Henicorhina leucophrys Three records GER


Grey Catbird Dumetella carolinensis Two sightings (of the same bird?) SEL


Black-faced Solitaire Myadestes melanops Two sightings GER

Black-billed Nightingale-thrush Catharus gracilirostris Four sightings GER

Slaty-backed Nightingale-thrush Catharus fuscater Heard BAJ

Ruddy-capped Nightingale-thrush Catharus frantzii Five sightings GER

Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus Two GER, two sightings SELV and one TOR

Wood Thrush Catharus mustelinus One SELV

Sooty Robin (Thrush) Turdus nigrescens Common GER/MUE

Mountain Robin (Thrush) Turdus plebejus Common GER

Clay-colored Robin (Thrush) Turdus grayi Common throughout


Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus One SEL

White-lored Gnatcatcher Polioptila albiloris Six records ENS

Tropical Gnatcatcher Polioptila plumbea Four records SEL/SELV/TOR


Brown Jay Cyanocorax morio Four records CAR

White-throated Magpie-Jay Calocitta formosa Seven records ENS/PAL

Emberizidae - Emberizinae

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis Common BOU,GER,ENS

Volcano Junco Junco vulcani Ten MUE

Stripe-headed Sparrow Aimophila ruficauda Thirteen sightings ENS

Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina Common

Variable Seedeater Sporophila aurita Common

White-collared Seedeater Sporophila torqueola Four DOM and then common ENS to ARE (40) PAL

Yellow-faced Grassquit Tiaris olivacea Six TAP and common ARE/SEL

Prevost's Ground-sparrow Melozone biarcuatum Two were found BOU

White-eared Ground-sparrow Melozone leucotis Two BOU

Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris Two CAR, four sightings SELV/SEL and one TOR

Black-striped Sparrow Arremonops conirostris One CAR one ARE and four SEL

Large-footed Finch Pezopetes capitalis Three GER

Yellow-thighed Finch Pselliophorus tibialis Twelve GER/MUE and two BAJ

Emberizidae - Cardinalinae

Black-thighed Grosbeak Pheucticus tibialis Two at a nest GER

Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus Seven widely spread records

Black-faced Grosbeak Caryothraustes poliogaster Common SEL, one BRA

Black-headed Saltator Saltator atriceps Four sightings SEl

Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus Widespread, especially common SEL

Grayish Saltator Saltator coerulescens Widespread, especially common SEL

Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides Three sightings CAR

Blue Grosbeak Guiraca caerulea Six CAR

Painted Bunting Passerina ciris Two males and four females/juvs CAR

Emberizidae - Thraupinae

Common Bush-tanager Chlorospingus ophthalmicus Common TAP,GER and BAJ

Sooty-capped Bush-tanager Chlorospingus pileatus Ten records GER/MUE

Dusky-faced Tanager Mitrospingus cassinii Two SEL

White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus A pair CAR

Red-throated Ant-tanager Habia fuscicauda three sightings SEL/SELV and one TOR

Flame-colored Tanager Piranga bidentata Eight sightings GER

Summer Tanager Piranga rubra Widespread

Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea One CAR and several SEL

Crimson-collared Tanager Ramphocelus sanguinolentus One TAP and four SEL/SELV

Passerini's (Scarlet-rumped) Tanager Ramphocelus passerinii Common CAR

Cherrie's (Scarlet-rumped) Tanager Ramphocelus costaricensis Common PAC

Blue-grey Tanager Thraupis episcopus Common throughout

Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum Common throughout

Scrub Euphonia Euphonia affinis Three sightings ENS

Yellow-crowned Euphonia Euphonia luteicapilla Four sightings SEL

Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris Six CAR

Yellow-throated Euphonia Euphonia hirundinacea Three CAR

Olive-backed Euphonia Euphonia gouldi Five records SEL and one TOR

Blue-crowned (Golden-browed) Chlorophonia Chlorophonia callophrys Two BAJ

Silver-throated Tanager Tangara icterocephala Common TAP/GER and two ARE

Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola Three TAP

Golden-hooded Tanager Tangara larvata Two CAR,two ARE and several SEL

Spangle-cheeked Tanager Tangara dowii Seven GER

Scarlet-thighed Dacnis Dacnis venusta Four TAP

Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana Three SEL

Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza One ARE, several SEL and a pair BRA

Shining Honeycreeper Cyanerpes lucidus Several SEL

Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus An unexpected female GER, a pair CAR,three ARE and one SEL

Slaty Flowerpiercer Diglossa plumbea Five GER


Bananaquit Coereba flaveola Very local TAP, ARE, SEL/SELV and BOU


Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera One SEL

Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina Common

Flame-throated Warbler Parula gutturalis Four sightings GER

Tropical Parula Parula pitiayumi Two TAP

Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia One TAP one GER and two TOR

Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia Common

Mangrove (Yellow) Warbler Dendroica petechia erithachoroides Six sightings ENS

Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica Widespread especially CAR

Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca Three TAP

Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens Four sightings GER and two ARE

American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla One TOR

Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis Three sightings CAR, one PAL and one TOR

Olive-crowned Yellowthroat Geothlypis semiflava A male near TOR

Gray-crowned Yellowthroat Geothlypis poliocephala A male TAP and a male ARE

Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla Common GER,ARE,BAJ

Slate-throated Whitestart (Redstart) Myioborus miniatus Three TAP and several BAJ

Collared Whitestart (Redstart) Myioborus torquatus Six records GER

Buff-rumped Warbler Basileuterus fulvicauda Seven records SEL/SELV

Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus Four GER

Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons One ENS

Black-cheeked Warbler Basileuterus melanogenys Three GER


Yellow-winged (Carmiol's) Vireo Vireo carmioli Five sightings GER

Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons Three sightings CAR

Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus Six records ENS

Brown-capped Vireo Vireo leucophrys Four GER

Lesser Greenlet Hylophilus decurtatus Widespread in forests


Yellow-bellied Siskin Carduelis xanthogastra Two GER

SPARROWS Passeridae

House Sparrow Passer domesticus Several at filling stations


Chestnut-headed Oropendola Psarocolius wagleri Several TAP

Montezuma Oropendola Gymnostinops montezuma Widespread

Scarlet-rumped (Subtropical) Cacique Cacicus uropygialis Three sightings SEL

Yellow-tailed Oriole Icterus mesomelas Two SEL

Spot-breasted Oriole Icterus pectoralis Two ENS

Streak-backed Oriole Icterus pustulatus Several ENS

Baltimore (Northern) Oriole Icterus galbula Widespread

Black-cowled Oriole Icterus prosthemelas Several SEL

Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus Widespread in grasslands (150)

Red-breasted Blackbird Leistes militaris Five sightings near Caño Blanco

Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna Two TAP and eight records ENS

Melodious Blackbird Dives dives Eleven records ENS,ARE and SEL

Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus Common and widespread

Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus aeneus Common BOU and DOM

Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora Three BOU


MARSUPIALS - American Opossums
Marsupiala - Didelphidae

Common Opossum Didelphis marsupialis One PAL

Water Opossom Chironectes minimus One TOR

EDENTATES - Two-toed Sloths Edentata - Megalonychidae

Hoffman's Two-toed Sloth Choloepus hoffmanni One TAP and one Ortina

BATS - Sheath-tailed Bats
Chiroptera - Emballonuridae

Greater White-lined Sac-winged Bat Saccopteryx bilineata Thirty two PAL

BATS - New World Leaf-nosed Bats
Chiroptera - Phyllostomidae

Great Bulldog (fishing) Bat Noctilio leporinus Several PAL

Brown Tent-making Bat Uroderma magnirostris Five CAR

PRIMATES - New World Monkeys
Primates - Cebidae

White-fronted Capuchin Cebus albifrons Noted CAR,ENS and TOR

Mantled Howler Monkey Alouatta palliata Common throughout the lowlands

Central American Spider Monkey Ateles geoffroyii Twelve records TOR

CARNIVORES - DOGS - Carnivora Canis

Grey Fox Drymarchon corais One PAL

CARNIVORES - Raccoons Carnivora - Procyonidae

White-nosed Coati Nasua narica One CAR and one SEL

CARNIVORES - Mustelids
Carnivora - Mustelidae

Neotropical River Otter Lutra longicaudis Two TOR

Artiodactyla - Tayassuidae

Collared Peccary Tayassu tajacu Six sightings SEL

Artiodactyla - Cervidae

White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Three adults and one juv PAL

RODENTS - Squirrels
Rodentia - Sciuridae

Variegated Squirrel Sciurus variegatoides Common in the lowlands

Alfaro's Pygmy (Central American Dwarf) Squirrel Microsciurus calfari Common GER


Cane Toad Bufo marinus Noted CAR and SEL

Green Poison-arrow Frog Dendrobates auratus Common CAR, ARE and SEL/SELV

Strawberry Poison-dart Frog Dendrobates pumilo Only ARE and SEL/SELV

Tink Frog Eleutherodactylus diastema At CAR,ARE and SEL

Masked Treefrog Smilisca phaeota Only CAR


Yellowbelly Gecko Phyllodactus tuberculosus Common

Yellowheaded Gecko Gonatodes albogularis Only at ENS

Green Iguana Iguana iguana Common

Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura similis Common PAC

Basilisk Basiliscus basiliscus Common CAR, PAL and BRA

Emerald Basilisk Basilicus plumifrons Only SEL and TOR

Central American Whip-tailed Lizard Ameira festiva Common

Green Spiny Lizard Sceloporus malachiticus Only PAL

American Crocodile Crocodylus acutus At CAR, PAL and TOR

Spectacled Cayman Caiman crocodilus Common TOR

Red (Painted Wood) Turtle Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima Common SELV

Indigo Snake Drymarchon corais One ENS

Bird-eating Snake Pseustes poecilonotus One near Caño Blanco

© The Travelling Naturalist 2005