Southern Brazil

Friday 17 September - Saturday 2 October 2004

Neil Arnold Travelling Naturalist
Luis Segura Birding Argentina (Guest Leader)
Miguel Castelino Birding Argentina


We have travelled to many habitats ranging from one hundred metres to two thousand one hundred metres above sea level and from wet pasture to Atlantic Forest. We have seen mammals varying in size from Tapir to Bare-ear Marmoset and birds from Greater Rhea to Tufted Coquette.
The success of the trip has been largely due to the skill and tenacity of Miguel, our leader, to the driving skills of Manuel and Marcelo, and, most significantly to the field craft, enthusiasm and good nature of you all.

My special thanks go to Miguel for his patient leadership and to Luis for his support and good nature. I also thank Luis for insisting on carrying my telescope and tripod on many occasions; it's good to see a young man take pity on an old fella! My thanks also go to our drivers.
I hope we will meet again soon and that the thousands of photographs you have taken will bring back good memories.
Best wishes
Neil Arnold October 2004


The trans- Atlantic flight to Sao Paulo went without a hitch, as did the internal flight to Cuiaba.

WEATHER 3/8 cumulus. Hazy. Sunshine.Hot. Still.
Having met up with Miguel, our leader, and Luis, also of Birding Argentina, we set off towards the Pantanal. Once we had eaten lunch at Pocone we started to drive on the Transpantaneira Highway, a gravel road which crosses one hundred and twenty wooden bridges as it forges its way one hundred and forty Km into the Pantanal.

At first the landscape was dominated by dry, rough pasture dotted with trees. It was here that we found a great prize, Red-legged Seriema, standing in the shade of a tree. It allowed us to leave the bus and view it through the telescopes before it moved a metre or two into hiding.
The roadside pools then became the centre of our attention. Not only were they full of the expected wetland birds but songbirds were also well represented. Perhaps the most unexpected feature of one of the pools was a roosting Band-tailed Nighthawk; it was good to see this nocturnal bird in the daylight.

Herons, storks and ibis were common. We managed to see thirty Jabiru during the journey, for instance. Wonderful views were also had of Rufescent Tiger-Heron, Sunbittern, Buff-necked, Plumbeous and Green Ibis. Songbirds included Unicoloured Blackbird, Rusty-collared and White-bellied Seedeaters and Green-barred Woodpecker. Black and Lesser Yellow-headed Vultures, Crested and Yellow-headed Caracara. Great-Black, Savanna, Black-collared and Roadside Hawks were also noted.

As we approached the turning to the Pousada Pouco Alegre (Km33) we had a foretaste of what was to come; we found four Hyacinth Macaws perched in a tree. We were able to view them at our leisure.

It would be wrong to think that our afternoon had been wholely concerned with birds. We had good views of River Otters, Bare-ear(Black-tailed) Marmosets, Capybara, Azara's Agouti,South American Fox, South American Coati and Marsh Deer. Huge numbers of Pantanal Caiman were also viewed with some suspicion.

After a good evening meal we said 'Good night' to a number of insectivorous bats catching insects around the lamps and retired to our beds.

WEATHER 1/8 Cu. Hazy. Sunny. Hot. Still.

By 05.00 we were standing in the dark near the palms from which we could already hear the shrieks of Hyacinth Macaws. The dawn was also welcomed by a host of other birds and distant Black-and-gold Howler Monkeys. As the day brightened we were treated to a display by twenty Macaws. Before it was quite light a Necunda Nighthawk flew overhead and a Ferruginous Pygmy Owl called from somewhere nearby.

There were many more bird sightings but the next speciality was a Chestnut -bellied Guan feeding on the ground. Eventually it flew to the top of a tree and started feeding on flowers.
By 07.15 we had had breakfast and were driving towards the highway. We spent the morning driving and walking within the pousada. One of the highlights of the morning was an adult Jabiru feeding two young on a huge stick nest which had been sub-let to a colony of Monk Parakeets.
Close photographs were then taken of Caiman which had to be shooed off the road! Many perching birds were found including Grey-crested Cachalote, Great and Rufous-fronted (Common) Thornbird, Rusty-backed Antwren, White-lored Spinetail and Campo Oriole.
We even found two more Red-legged Seriema and another Sunbittern, all of which were close to the bus.

Lunch and a siesta then took precedence. One of the features of the site was a well-stocked bird table which attracted a range of songbirds including some thirty five Yellow-billed Cardinals, resplendent in their scarlet finery.

At 15.30 we set off for the Pousada Santa Tereza at Km65. Before we had even left the estate of Pousada Alegre we were treated to views of Bare-faced Curassow, Grey Brocket Deer and Blue-throated Piping-Guan. The highlights en route to the pousada were Black-crowned Night-Heron, Blue-crowned Parakeet and Little Woodpecker. As dusk approached we saw a fine, well antlered, Marsh Deer by the roadside. It was a fine ending to the day.

WEATHER 1/8 Cu.Hazy Hot,Sunny, Light breeze.

The day started with Band-tailed Nighthawks over the River Pixaim.

After breakfast we set off into the gallery forest which lined the river. Distant Black-and-gold Howler Monkeys, Capybara, Coati and Brown Capuchin Monkey constituted the mammal collection for the morning. We also saw a wide variety of local woodland species including Green-backed Becard, Mato Grosso Antbird, Large-billed Antwren, Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher, Black-fronted Nunbird, Rufous Casiornis, Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant, Flavescent Warbler and Helmeted Manakin, but to mention a few. Throughout the morning we were constantly reminded of the presence of Undulated Tinamou by its constantly monotonous call. As we walked through the forest one eventually flew up, whirring away with incredibly loud wingbeats. We then returned to the posada before the day became too hot. Lunch and siesta time followed.

By 16.00 we were sitting in two aluminium boats ready to explore the river. We were soon watching Sunbittern, including some showing off their 'sunburst' wings, Bare -faced Curassow, Chestnut-bellied Guan and Blue-throated Piping-Guan. Needless to say waterside birds were much in evidence. We also enjoyed views of Black-and-gold Howler Monkey and family parties of Capybara.

On reaching our eventual destination we were surprised to see seven Giant River Otters. We knew that they were in the river before we set off but we didn't expect to see such a large group. We watched them for some time. The party seemed to consist of a dominant male and six immature animals. They were very noisy as they quarrelled over the fish they had caught; the male kept order though.

As we made our way back to the Posada dusk fell. We were thrilled to see hawking Nighthawks, including the massive Nacunda Nighthawk. Bats also appeared on the scene. Miguel shone the spotlight on likely looking birds and eventually found two Boatbilled Herons.

During the 'callover', just before dinner, a Great Horned Owl was heard. Our attempts to find it were frustrated by it being some distance away. It was a choice between a walk in the dark or dinner; dinner won.

After dinner we set off in the coach to look for nocturnal species. We drove south along the 'Highway' for an hour without much reward for our labours. We then stopped to scan a pool, finding another Boat-billed Heron. A movement beyond the pond then caught our eye. There, feeding quietly, was an adult Brazilian Tapir. It was obliging enough to stay for a minute or two before moving into cover.

As we drove into the Pousada we discovered yet another mammal, a fine Crab-eating Racoon. It was a fitting end to a grand day.

WEATHER Hazy, sunny,hot. Cloudless & still

We spent the morning from 06.15 to 14.00 driving and walking south on the 'Highway'. We were glad of the air conditioning in the bus by about 09.00. Once again wetland species dominated the watching. We had wonderful views of Southern Screamers, a pair of Muscovy Duck, Jabiru on nests with young and a Bare-faced Ibis. Interesting songbirds included Lesser Seedfinches, Scarlet-headed Blackbirds and Fork-tailed Woodnymph. One of the most spectacular birds of the morning, though, was a stunning Crane Hawk perched by the roadside. It then demonstrated its fine plumage during a short flight. Mammals included Capybara, Brown Capuchin Monkey, Coati, four Marsh Deer, including a male, and a Grey Brocket Deer.

Lunch was eaten in 'the field' so as soon as we returned it was siesta time.

The final activity of the day was a short walk in an area of nearby riverine forest. Campo Flicker and Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl were the stars of the walk. The delightful Rusty-backed Spinetail also gave us a fine display.

WEATHER Clear, sunny, hot. A light NE breeze.

We started the day with another boat trip. Although we enjoyed renewed sightings of many wetland species we were also delighted to see a number of rather confiding songbirds including Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant, Band-tailed Antbird and Large-billed Antwren. We also watched a male Bare-faced Curassow as it fed and drank at the water's edge.

The rest of the morning was spent driving to Cuiaba.

The land adjacent to the Transpantaneira was full of wildlife. This was particularly so in the remnant of the floods. In an area of water about the size of a couple of football fields were hundreds of water birds. Perhaps the most astounding feature was a congregation of eighty Jabiru. Herons, storks and ibis abounded. There was also a selection of waders but in much smaller numbers. A lone migrant Grey Plover was unexpected.

Whilst having a drink at a small roadside stall at Km30 we watched a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl consuming a small lizard. This made good photographic 'footage'. Almost the last birds we saw as we left the Pantanal were a pair of Hyacinth Macaws in flight. We then drove though 'cattle country' to Cuiaba where we had lunch.

By 16.00 the bus took us up the steep road to the top of the seven hundred metre high plateau on which Pousada Penhasco is situated. We stopped briefly to look at a perched bird of prey on a high pinnacle. The view of an adult King Vulture through the telescope was magnificent. Red and Green Macaws and Blue-headed Parrots were also seen.

We stopped at the Chapada dos Guimares, the 'Bridal Veil'. This is a local beauty spot on top of the high cliffs which give spectacular views of the Amazonian gallery forest below. Sadly much of the area was still smouldering after a very rapid bush fire had swept through the area earlier in the day. Not only did we enjoy viewing the waterfall, which plunged eighty metres to a ledge below, but we also noted a fine collection of birds, including a number of tanager species and a Black-throated Saltator.

Perhaps the most interesting feature of the local birdlife was the collection of swifts. Biscutate, White-collared and Great Dusky Swifts were seen in flight. The latter could also be found roosting behind the water of the waterfall. One White-collared Swift had also joined them.
Having admired the sunset we made for the Pousada Penhasco.

WEATHER A dull morning with occ. showers. A fine afternoon.

On the way to breakfast we encountered a South American Fox being mobbed by a Burrowing Owl. Later in the morning we made for the cerrado, a habitat dominated by bush reaching no more than four metres or so in height.

There was considerable bird activity; sightings included White-banded, White -rumped and Black-faced Tanagers, White-eared Puffbird, Rufous-winged Antshrike, White-vented Violetear, Rufous-sided Pygmy Tyrant and the very local Chapada Flycatcher. Once again we saw Red-and-green Macaws, one at point blank range, feeding in fruiting shrubs near the road. A family of Burrowing Owls sitting outside their burrow also gave excellent photographic opportunities.

By 09.30 we had reached an area of Amazonian gallery forest. White and Yellow-tufted Woodpeckers, Yellow-ridged Toucan, Blue-crowned Motmot and Rufous-tailed Jacamar enchanted us before the rain came.

We retreated to the Chapada dos Guimares where we explored for a while. We then ate lunch in a restaurant overlooking the gorge. After our usual siesta we set off across the cerrado to the Ciudada de Petra, 'City of Stone'. En route we came across a Wedge-tailed Grassfinch. While we were watching the finch a raptor was found. It was perched forty metres from the road. On examination it proved to be an adult Aplomado Falcon. It was a photographer's dream.

We walked a short distance from the unmade road past strange sand-blasted formations to the edge of the cliff. Three hundred meters below was the plain. Black and Turkey Vultures patrolled the cliff-edge as two Aplomado Falcons flashed by.

The climax of the afternoon, though, was the arrival of Red and Green Macaws to roost in he crevices in the cliff face. Then a pair of Blue- winged Macaws flew in and perched on a cliff-top tree in full sunlight. White-eyed Parakeets also joined the throng. Our last act of the afternoon was to look at the moon through a telescope; we marvelled at its beauty.

In the evening we celebrated Wyre's birthday; there was no wine and cake, honest!

WEATHER 1/8 Cu. Warm,0

By 06.30 we were in the forest. It seemed to be the morning for colourful birds. Almost as soon as we arrived we had great views of Yellow-tufted Woodpecker. Later we also noted Crimson-crested and Pale-crested Woodpeckers. More colour was provided by Yellow-ridged Toucan, Chestnut-eared and Lettered Aracari. The latter was unexpected, as it is usually to be found deeper in the Amazon forest. Crested Becard, Cinnamon-throated Hermit, Planalto Hermit and Saffron-billed Sparrow also added interest.

We took lunch in Cuiaba and then set off for the airport. By the evening we were in Sao Paulo.

WEATHER 7-8/8 Cu, Showers, still.

We drove from the city to Ubatuba, via the coastal town of Careguantatuba. We stopped en route at Corcovardo to get our first taste of the Atlantic Forest habitat.

We were immediately captivated by the tanagers, the most exotic of which were the Green-headed and the Brazilian Tanager. Hooded Siskin, Tropical Parula, Blue-winged Parotlet and Violet-capped Woodnymph also showed off their colours. More subtle birds were also to be found including Yellow-lored (Grey-headed) Tody Flycatcher, Sombre-winged Hummingbird and Streaked Xenops.

Once checked in at the delightful Hotel Solar das Aguas Cantantes, a fine hotel built in the traditional courtyard style, we were able to watch birds at the feeders. Green Honeycreeper, the splendid Red-necked Tanager and Grey-breasted Sabrewing made an immediate impact.

After lunch and a siesta we visited Fazenda Capricornico, a disused cocoa plantation.
The estate abounded with interesting flowers and insects. The birds were also very varied. Once again colourful birds came to the fore, including Red-breasted Toucan, Yellow-fronted and Blond-crested Woodpecker and Red-rumped Cacique. We then enjoyed close, prolonged views of Saw-billed Hermit.

We also picked a cocoa pod, split it open and ate the sweet white pulp which surrounds the seeds: 'when in Rome…'! We had had a delightful initial experience of the Atlantic Forest.

WEATHER 8/8 Cu,dull,0

By 06.20 we entered the privately owned Fazenda Angelim. There were plenty of birds but the heavy, overcast weather seemed to persuade them that the thick vegetation was much their best location. Despite the light being poor and the birds shy we noted a wide range of forest species. Ruby-crowned, and Brazilian Tanager were present as were Plain Parakeet, Black-crowned Foliage-gleaner, Ferruginous Antbird, Chestnut-bellied Euphonia, White-tailed Trogon and White-shoulded Fire-eye. As usual Bare-throated Bellbird was calling from cover. It was very gratifying, therefore, when we were able to find a female in full view for long enough to watch it through the telescopes.

A passing Black Hawk-eagle also afforded us a brief view. Many birds were heard but not seen, including the skulking Rufous-capped Ant-thrush, Streak-capped Antwren and Slaty Bristle-front. Blue Manakin also eluded us.

In the afternoon some relaxed and others walked to the beach. The 'beach party' had good views of Sooty Swift. At 15.30 we set off for Angras dos Reis.

WEATHER Rain early. Sunny, hot, a light breeze later.

The secondary forest around the village of Perque was a delight. We were greeted by a White-tailed Trogon in full song. We then watched the birds in a huge flowering Coral Tree. Tanagers, dacnis, and parrotlets fed on the flowers while flycatchers and Southern Rough-winged Swallows caught insects visiting the flowers. In the undergrowth we saw a number of small flycatchers, notably Ochre-faced Tody-tyrant, Eared Pygmy-tyrant and Serra do Mar Tyrannulet. Ferruginous Antbird was also seen. The real gem of the day, though, was the Black-hooded Antwren, a most attractive little bird. It was re-discovered here in 1989, it having been thought extinct. There are now two sites. At Perque there are at least four pairs.

The other feature of the morning was the abundance of butterflies, of which there were obviously many species.

As the temperature rose we were glad to get back to our air-conditioned hotel for a cool drink, lunch and a siesta.

At 15.00 we set off in our air-conditioned bus for the cooler climes of The Hotel Simon, Itatiaia,at 1,100 m.a.s.l. A flock of White-collared Swifts was the highlight of the trip, apart from the marvellous scenery, as we made our way through the mountains.

WEATHER Misty early. A beautiful sunny day. Still.

Soon after 06.00 we set off to walk a forest trail at the same altitude as the hotel. In reality it took us four hours to walk five hundred metres.

As we stepped out of the hotel into the garden we were captivated by the variety of vegetation and bird life. Huge Dusky-legged Guan scrambled around the trees while such gems as Swallow-tailed Hummingbirds and Frilled Coquette fed on an array of flowers. Velvet Black and Masked Water-tyrants were also very active.

Once in the forest, birds were more difficult to observe. Eventually, though, with patience, we saw a wide range of woodcreepers, flycatchers and antbirds. We all appreciated the fine colours of Surucua Trogon and Yellow (White)-browed Woodpecker, while, in contrast, the subtleties of White-throated Woodcreeper and White-collared Foliage-gleaner also fired the imagination. Ferruginous Antbird also showed off its splendour in bright sunlight.

As we emerged into the sunlight at the hotel a White-tailed Hawk soared overhead and a Barred Forest-falcon dashed through the garden.

Our next port of call was the private garden of Senhor Simon, which he kindly opens to birdwatchers. The feeders were full of birds, including an array of hummingbirds: Swallow-tailed and White-throated Hummingbird, Black-throated Mango, Violet-capped Woodnymph, Brazilian Ruby and Black Jacobin. We were able to watch from a range of three or four metres. The hummingbirds seemed unmoved by our presence; in fact some of us had to move quickly to prevent being struck by the birds as they made for the feeders. The aggressive behaviour between feeding birds, though, was fierce. This was the ideal spot to photograph these sparkling wonders of nature.

Once again we recorded mammals. We had excellent views of Guianan Squirrel and heard a troupe of Masked Titi Monkeys; our attempts to see the latter were fruitless.

After lunch and a 'siesta', during which some folk saw a White-barred Piculet, we walked down the road towards the park gates.

We had only walked a few yards when a dark morph White-tailed Hawk flew over. Forest birds then caught our attention, including Scaly throated Hermit, Grey-crowned Tyrannulet, Gilt-edged Tanager and the splendid Saffron Toucanet.
We then found the most exciting bird of the afternoon, a female Rufous-thighed Kite sitting on a tree. We watched the bird for many minutes, even enjoying views through the telescopes at times sixty. While we watched the male flew in, mated with the female and flew to a perch. We were then able to watch both birds at the same time (so to speak).

After dinner we walked in the grounds in the hope of seeing an owl. Within minutes we heard the throbbing call of the Tawny-browed Owl. Eventually we managed to see the bird in the beam of the spotlight. It was a great way to end the day.

WEATHER A bright, sunny day with a breeze

Much of the day was spent at high altitude. By 07.00 we were in the montane Atlantic Forest at one thousand eight hundred metres a.s.l.

Brassy-breasted and Diademed Tanagers and Red-rumped Warbling-finch dazzled us as Thick-billed Saltator and Rufous-crowned Greenlet attempted to merge into the background. A little further along the road we were advised to look out for Black-and-gold Cotingas. As we stepped out of the bus the first birds we saw were four splendid cotingas. We wondered what Miguel was going to do for his next trick. Blue-billed Black Tyrant, Olivaceous Elaenia and Mottled-cheeked Tyrannulet were then seen. At 2,500 m. a.s.l. we noted the diminutive Bay-chested Warbling Finch; once more the cameras were clicking.

Nearby was a freshwater pool from which ran a Slaty-breasted Woodrail; this was a welcome surprise. We then found a bird confined to the area, Itatiaia Spinetail.

We ate our packed lunch at our final destination at two thousand one hundred metres a.s.l.
We spent a great deal of time looking at butterflies and day-flying moths before starting our descent.

On our way down we stopped to watch insects and discovered a Plovercrest, and, after a great deal of searching, we had a brief encounter with a Mouse-coloured Tapaculo.

Once back at Hotel Simon we had time for a brief siesta before walking a local trail.
By this time it had become overcast so the birds were hard to find. On hearing a piecing call, though, we moved from the forest to the hotel garden to watch a hunting Short-tailed Nighthawk. For the second day in a row the curtain was drawn down by a nocturnal bird.

WEATHER Total cloud cover; heavy showers and constant light rain. Brighter pm

The morning was spent on the main park road, starting higher up than the Hotel Simon in the Marumba area. Here we viewed a fast flowing stream as it tumbled between huge granite boulders.

Just as we started to walk down the road it poured with rain so we took shelter in the bus. Soon, though, the rain moderated to a fine drizzle so we carried on on foot. The birds obviously enjoyed the first rain to have fallen in weeks. Our first surprise was the arrival in a roadside tangle of trees of a Black-billed Scythebill. Whilst it was singing it was strange to see the great curved bill opening and closing; it appeared to be quite a feat of engineering. Close views of Surucua Trogon were also pleasing. Perhaps the most unexpected bird of the morning, though, was the Streak-capped Antwren which we watched at eye level; usually they are to be found at the top of trees. Two woodpeckers then appeared, White-spotted Woodpecker and White-barred Piculet. The former soon flew off but the piculet completely ignored us as it proceeded to tear into a slender branch. Two troupes of Masked Titi Monkeys were then heard 'shouting' at each other but once again they were out of sight somewhere on the wooded hillside. We did, though, enjoy the antics of a Guianan Squirrel. Soon after a Black Hawk-Eagle passed high overhead. We eventually walked past the turning to the hotel, finding the most attractive Black-capped Foliage-gleaner, Scaly-headed Parrots, Red-Bellied Parakeets and, on a smaller scale, a Spot-breasted Antvireo. It had been yet another splendid morning despite the rain.

The afternoon walk was once again dominated by colourful birds.

Rufous -headed Tanager and White-billed Piculet were seen amidst a flock of Green-headed Tanagers as we walked the lower part of the park.

Then we came to the chocolate shop. There can't be many places in the world where you can stand eating chocolate while watching seven species of hummingbirds buzzing around a feeder. It was a wonderful way to spend the final half hour of our last full day in the park.

WEATHER Heavy rain overnight, followed by fog.

The morning was spent driving and walking on the main park road until we had dropped to around seven hundred metres. Here the fog had cleared. Finding birds was difficult in the higher reaches of the road. At one point, though, we were lucky enough to see a Sharp-billed Treehunter and later a bird with a very similar lifestyle, the Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner. After a long wait we also managed to see a male Blue Manakin at a lek. Tanagers seemed to be the highlight of the morning; six species were seen feeding in fruiting trees. Flower photography was also a major feature of the walks, a rather startling orchid being a popular subject.

After an early lunch we set off for Sao Paulo. As soon as we reached the airport we said our farewells to Sue and Terry who were off to North-western Argentina for another trip with Birding Argentina. Later that evening we had dinner in an airport restaurant before taking our leave of Miguel and Luis and catching our flight home.

Neil Arnold
October 2004



AN Angras dos Reis area
CH Chapada dos Guimaraes area
IT Itatiaia area
PAN Pantanal
UB Ubatuba area

'Heard' refers to bird vocalization
Clearly heard by the group.

Brown Tinamou
Crypturellus obsoletus Heard IT
Undulated Tinamou Crypturellus undulatus One PAN
Red-winged Tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens Heard CH

Greater Rhea Rhea americana Nine PAN

Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens Common on the coast

Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus Common PAN, less so elsewhere.

Anhinga Anhinga anhinga Common PAN

Southern Screamer Chauna torquata Thirteen records PAN

Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata Two pairs PAN
Brazilian Teal Amazonetta brasiliensis Two pairs PAN

Herons, Egrets and Bitterns
Whistling Heron Syrigma sibilatrix Eight PAN, two elsewhere
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea Six noted PAN
Snowy Egret Egretta thula Widespread PAN and one UB
Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus Eleven records PAN
Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi Very common PAN, one en route IT
Great Egret Ardea alba Widespread,common PAN
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Widespread, scarce PAN, more common in cattle breeding areas
Striated Heron Butorides striatus Twenty six records PAN
Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax Common, a total of fifty six PAN
Boat-billed Heron Cochlearius cochlearius Four PAN
Rufescent Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma lineatum Common, total of fifty five PAN

Ibises and Spoonbills

Bare-faced Ibis Phimosus infuscatus Three PAN
Plumbeous Ibis Theristicus caerulescens Twenty four PAN
Buff-necked Ibis Theristicus caudatus Fifteen PAN and a small group near Sao Paulo
Green Ibis Mesembrinibis cayennensis A total of fifty six PAN
Roseate Spoonbill Ajaia ajaja Ten noted PAN

Wood Stork Mycteria americana Very common PAN
Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari A total of twenty four PAN
Jabiru Jabiru mycteria A total of one hundred and fifty eight, including a flock of eighty on 23rd PAN

New World Vultures
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus Common and widespread
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura Thinly spread
Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes burrovianus Common PAN
King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa One CH

Hawks, Eagles and Kites
Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus Five sightings CH
Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis A total of thirty four PAN
Rufous-thighed Kite Harpagus diodon A magnificent pair IT
Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea Two PAN and three CH
Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens Excellent views of one PAN and one near IT
Great Black-Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga Only PAN where common; twenty records
Savanna Hawk Buteogallus meridionalis Twenty records PAN and two en route CH
Black-collared Hawk Busarellus nigricollis Only PAN, twenty two sightings
Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris Very widespread
Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus A single bird seen twice IT
White-tailed Hawk Buteo albicaudatus One CH and one IT
Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus Seen twice, heard once IT

Falcons and Caracaras
Crested Caracara Caracara plancus Very widespread
Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima Ten scattered records
Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans Heard IT
Barred Forest-Falcon Micrastur ruficollis One IT
Collared Forest-Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus Heard IT
American Kestrel Falco sparverius Two CH and two UB
Aplomado Falcon Falco femoralis Three CH

Guans, Chachalacas and Curassows
Chaco Chachalaca Ortalis canicollis Common PAN
Dusky-legged Guan Penelope obscura Common IT
Chestnut-bellied Guan Penelope ochrogaster Three sightings PAN
Blue-throated Piping-Guan Pipile cumanensis Thirteen sightings PAN
Bare-faced Curassow Crax fasciolata Eleven sightings PAN

Rails and Coots
Gray-necked Wood-Rail Aramides cajanea Very common PAN
Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail Aramides saracura One IT

Sunbittern Eurypyga helias Seventeen sightings PAN


Limpkin Aramus guarauna Very common PAN

Red-legged Seriema Cariama cristata Three records PAN

Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana Common PAN

Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda A single bird in flight
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca Two PAN
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes One PAN
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria Thirteen records PAN
Spotted Sandpiper Tringa macularia Three PAN

Avocets and Stilts
White-backed Stilt Himantopus melanurus Common PAN

Plovers and Lapwings
Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis Common in the lowlands
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola One PAN

Gulls and Terns
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Only on the coast

Pigeons and Doves
Rock Dove Columba livia Feral form common near habitation
Picazuro Pigeon Columba picazuro Common throughout
Plumbeous Pigeon Columba plumbea More often heard than seen IT
Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata Very local PAN
Scaled Dove Columbina squammata Locally common PAN
Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti Common throughout
Picui Ground-Dove Columbina picui Common PAN
Long-tailed Ground-Dove Uropelia campestris A small flock PAN
White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi Common PAN
Gray-fronted Dove Leptotila rufaxilla Heard IT

Parrots and Macaws
Hyacinth Macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus Thirty one sightings PAN
Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloropterus Thirteen sightings CH
Blue-winged Macaw Ara maracana Five sightings CH
Red-shouldered Macaw Ara nobilis Several PAN
Blue-crowned Parakeet Aratinga acuticaudata A handful PAN
White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus Only CH
Peach-fronted Parakeet Aratinga aurea Noted regularly PAN and CH
Nanday Parakeet Nandayus nenday Four PAN
Maroon-bellied Parakeet Pyrrhura frontalis Common UB and IT `
Monk Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus Common PAN
Blue-winged Parrotlet Forpus xanthopterygius Common CH/AN, less so IT
Yellow-chevroned Parakeet Brotogeris chiriri Common PAN/CH
Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus Two CH
Scaly-headed Parrot Pionus maximiliani Noted regularly PAN and IT

New World Cuckoos
Ash-colored Cuckoo Coccyzus cinereus Two CH
Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana Noted CH and UB

Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani Common except at IT
Guira Cuckoo Guira guira Regular sightings in agricultural areas


Tropical Screech-Owl Otus choliba Heard CH
Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus Heard PAN
Tawny-browed Owl Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana One IT
Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum Only noted PAN
Burrowing Owl Speotyto cunicularia Ten sightings CH

Short-tailed Nighthawk Lurocalis semitorquatus One IT
Band-tailed Nighthawk Nyctiprogne leucopyga Thirteen sightings PAN
Nacunda Nighthawk Podager nacunda Two PAN
Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis One PAN
Spot-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus maculicaudus Heard PAN
Little Nightjar Caprimulgus parvulus Heard PAN
Scissor-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis brasiliana One PAN

Sooty Swift Cypseloides fumigatus Noted AN and IT
Great Dusky Swift Cypseloides senex Only CH
White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris One CH and several IT
Biscutate Swift Streptoprocne biscutata At least ten CH
Gray-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris Four AN
Ashy-tailed Swift Chaetura andrei Common IT

Saw-billed Hermit Ramphodon naevius Three UB/AN
Scale-throated Hermit Phaethornis eurynome Four IT
Planalto Hermit Phaethornis pretrei One UB
Cinnamon-throated Hermit Phaethornis nattereri One UB
Gray-breasted Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis Two records UB
Swallow-tailed Hummingbird Eupetomena macroura One UB and then at two sites IT
Black Jacobin Melanotrochilus fuscus Common IT
White-vented Violet-ear Colibri serrirostris Four CH
Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis Noted AN and IT at high elevation
Plovercrest Stephanoxis lalandi One IT at high altitude
Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata One PAN
Violet-capped Woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis Common AN and IT
White-throated Hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis Only at IT
Versicolored Emerald Amazilia versicolor Elusive IT
Glittering-throated Emerald Amazilia fimbriata Several PAN
Sapphire-spangled Emerald Amazilia lactea At lower elevations IT
Sombre Hummingbird Aphantochroa cirrochloris Three records UB
Brazilian Ruby Clytolaema rubricauda Common IT

White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis Five AN
Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura Two IT
Brazilian Trogon Trogon aurantius Four records IT
Blue-crowned Trogon Trogon curucui One PAN, fiveCH

Ringed Kingfisher Ceryle torquata Common (20) PAN and one AN
Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona Common (20) PAN and one AN
Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana Scarce. Three PAN

Rufous-capped Motmot Baryphthengus ruficapillus Heard IT
Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota Eight sightings CH

Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda Four sightings CH

White-eared Puffbird Nystalus chacuru Four sightings CH
Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons Four sightings PAN


Lettered Aracari Pteroglossus inscriptus Two CH
Chestnut-eared Aracari Pteroglossus castanotis Four CH
Saffron Toucanet Baillonius bailloni Three IT
Yellow-ridged Toucan Ramphastos culminatus Six records CH
Red-breasted Toucan Ramphastos dicolorus One UB and common
Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco Common PAN and CH

White-barred Piculet Picumnus cirratus Three records IT
White Woodpecker Melanerpes candidus Heard PAN and three CH
Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus Two CH
Yellow-fronted Woodpecker Melanerpes flavifrons Three UB
Little Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus Three records PAN
White-spotted Woodpecker Veniliornis spilogaster One IT
Yellow-browed Woodpecker Piculus aurulentus Two IT
Green-barred Woodpecker Colaptes melanochloros Two PAN and one IT
Campo Flicker Colaptes campestris One PAN and two CH
Pale-crested Woodpecker Celeus lugubris Two CH
Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus flavescens One UB AND heard AN
Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos Two PAN and one CH

Thrush-like Woodcreeper Dendrocincla turdina Two IT
Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus One PAN and common IT
White-throated Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes albicollis Two records IT
Great Rufous Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes major Two PAN
Planalto Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes platyrostris One IT
Straight-billed Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus picus Three records PAN
Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus One PAN
Narrow-billed Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes angustirostris Common PAN
Lesser Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes fuscus Heard PAN
Red-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus trochilirostris Two records PAN
Black-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus falcularius One IT

Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus Common near water PAN
Rufous Hornero Furnarius rufus Common
Itatiaia Spinetail Schizoaca moreirae One IT
Rufous-capped Spinetail Synallaxis ruficapilla One IT
Pale-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albescens Heard CH
White-lored Spinetail Synallaxis albilora Two records PAN
Rusty-backed Spinetail Cranioleuca vulpina One PAN
Yellow-chinned Spinetail Certhiaxis cinnamomea Three PAN
Common Thornbird Phacellodomus rufifrons Three PAN
Greater Thornbird Phacellodomus ruber Common PAN
Grey-breasted Cachalote Pseudoseisura cachalote Common PAN
Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Philydor rufus Two records IT
Black-capped Foliage-gleaner Philydor atricapillus Two IT
White-collared Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops fuscus Two IT
Sharp-billed Treehunter Heliobletus contaminatus One IT
Streaked Xenops Xenops rutilans Two UB , two IT

Great Antshrike Taraba major Four PAN ,a pair CH
Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus Common PAN
Rufous-winged Antshrike Thamnophilus torquatus Several PAN
Spot-breasted Antvireo Dysithamnus stictothorax Two PAN
Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis Common UB AN IT
Large-billed Antwren Herpsilochmus longirostris Common PAN CH
Rufous-winged Antwren Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus One UB
Black-hooded Antwren Formicivora erythronotus Four AN
Rusty-backed Antwren Formicivora rufa Two PAN, two CH
Ferruginous Antbird Drymophila ferruginea Common UB AN IT
Streak-capped Antwren Terenura maculata Two IT
Mato Grosso Antbird Cercomacra melanaria Two PAN
White-shouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera Two UB, two IT
Band-tailed Antbird Hypocnemoides maculicauda One PAN

Anthrushes and Antpittas
Brazilian Antthrush Chamaeza ruficauda Heard IT
Such's Antthrush Chamaeza meruloides Heard IT
Variegated Antpitta Grallaria varia Heard IT
Rufous Gnateater Conopophaga lineata Two records IT

Mouse-colored Tapaculo Scytalopus speluncae One IT
Slaty Bristlefront Merulaxis ater Heard UB

Black-and-gold Cotinga Tijuca atra Four IT
Bare-throated Bellbird Procnias nudicollis A female UB, heard AN

Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata Two males PAN
Blue Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata Heard regularly, one male seen IT
White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus One AN

Tyrant Flycatchers
Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus Elusive IT
Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus striaticollis One PAN
Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer Five records PAN
Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum latirostre Six records PAN/CH
Yellow-lored Tody-flycatcher Todirostrum poliocephalum Common UB AN IT
Planalto Tyrannulet Phyllomyias fasciatus Common CH and IT
Gray-capped Tyrannulet Phyllomyias griseocapilla One IT
Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet Camptostoma obsoletum Two PAN and two IT
Yellow Tyrannulet Capsiempis flaveola One IT
Chapada Flycatcher Suiriri islerorum One CH
Serro do Mar Tyrannulet Phylloscartes difficilis One AN
Forest Elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii One PAN
Olivaceous Elaenia Elaenia mesoleuca One IT
Plain-crested Elaenia Elaenia cristata Two CH
Lesser Elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis Two CH
Plain Tyrannulet Inezia inornata Two records PAN
Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant Euscarthmus meloryphus One PAN and one CH
Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet Phylloscartes ventralis Four IT
Eared Pygmy-Tyrant Myiornis auricularis One AN and five IT
Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant Euscarthmus rufomarginatus Two CH
Large-headed Flatbill Ramphotrigon megacephala Two IT
Yellow-olive Flycatcher Tolmomyias sulphurescens One AN and three IT
Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus One UB and one IT
Swallow Flycatcher Hirundinea bellicosa Common CH and IT
Euler’s Flycatcher Lathrotriccus euleri One IT
Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus Four PAN
Gray Monjita Xolmis cinerea One CH
White-rumped Monjita Xolmis velata Three records PAN
Blue-billed Black-Tyrant Knipolegus cyanirostris Up to six IT
Velvety Black-Tyrant Knipolegus nigerrimus Eight records IT
Crested Black-Tyrant Knipolegus lophotes One IT
Black-backed Water-Tyrant Fluvicola albiventer Four records PAN
Masked Water-Tyrant Fluvicola nengeta Two IT
White-headed Marsh-Tyrant Arundinicola leucocephala Several records PAN
Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus Common in the coastal forests
Cattle Tyrant Machetornis rixosus Widespread
Gray-hooded Attila Attila rufus Heard AN, seen IT
Rufous Casiornis Casiornis rufa Three records PAN
Sirystes Sirystes sibilator Three records IT
Swainson’s Flycatcher Myiarchus swainsoni One IT
Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox Common PAN/CH
Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus Three records PAN
Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus Very widespread
Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana Widespread
Variegated Flycatcher Empidonomus varius One UB
Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua Scattered records CH UB AN
Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus Widespread
Rusty-margined Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis Four records IT
Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis Common in coastal forests
Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius Seen near cacique nests IT
Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor Near water PAN
Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus Noted daily
Green-backed Becard Pachyramphus viridis Three PAN and one AN
Chestnut-crowned Becard Pachyramphus castaneus Two UB and six IT
Crested Becard Pachyramphus validus One CH and two records IT
Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata Two CH
Black-crowned Tityra Tityra inquisitor Two CH

Crows and Jays
Purplish Jay Cyanocorax cyanomelas Common PAN/CH
Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus Common CH

Vireos and Allies
Rufous-browed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis Only at CH and IT
Chivi Vireo Vireo chivi CommonUB/AN
Rufous-crowned Greenlet Hylophilus poicilotis Two IT
Ashy-headed Greenlet Hylophilus pectoralis Common PAN

Yellow-legged Thrush Platycichla flavipes Common Atlantic forest
Rufous-bellied Thrush Turdus rufiventris Common throughout
Pale-breasted Thrush Turdus leucomelas Elusive CH
Creamy-bellied Thrush Turdus amaurochalinus Elusive PAN UB AN

Mockingbirds and Thrashers
Chalk-browed Mockingbird Mimus saturninus Common except IT


Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapillus Common PAN
Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus Six records PAN
Moustached Wren Thryothorus genibarbis Six records CH
Buff-breasted Wren Thryothorus leucotis Only in PAN, where more often heard than seen
House Wren Troglodytes aedon Common except PAN


Masked Gnatcatcher Polioptila dumicola Several PAN


White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer Common PAN
White-rumped Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa Only PAN; local
Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera Common PAN/ CH
Gray-breasted Martin Progne chalybea Common except IT
Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca Common except PAN
White-thighed Swallow Neochelidon tibialis Local UB/AN
Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Common throughout

Old World Sparrows
House Sparrow Passer domesticus Common in urban areas

Hooded Siskin Carduelis magellanica Two UB and one IT

New World Warblers

Tropical Parula Parula pitiayumi Three UB
Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis One PAN
Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus Common IT
White-bellied Warbler Basileuterus hypoleucus One CH
Flavescent Warbler Basileuterus flaveolus One PAN

Tanagers, Buntings, Sparrows and Allies
Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis Common in coastal areas
Saffron-billed Sparrow Arremon flavirostris One CH
Red-crested Cardinal Paroaria coronata Eight records PAN
Yellow-billed Cardinal Paroaria capitata Abundant PAN
Bananaquit Coereba flaveola Common
Chestnut-vented Conebill Conirostrum speciosum Widespread
Black-faced Tanager Schistochlamys melanopis Several CH
White-banded Tanager Neothraupis fasciata Four CH
White-rumped Tanager Cypsnagra hirundinacea Several CH
Magpie Tanager Cissopis leveriana Four records IT
Rufous-headed Tanager Hemithraupis ruficapilla One IT
Hooded Tanager Nemosia pileata Two PAN
Gray-headed Tanager Eucometis penicillata Several PAN
Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus Three AN
White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus A pair CH
Ruby-crowned Tanager Tachyphonus coronatus Common UB AN IT
White-lined Tanager Tachyphonus rufus Several PAN/CH
Black-goggled Tanager Trichothraupis melanops Three records IT
Hepatic Tanager Piranga flava Two females CH
Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo Common PAN/CH
Brazilian Tanager Ramphocelus bresilius Common UB/AN
Sayaca Tanager Thraupis sayaca Common throughout
Golden-chevroned Tanager Thraupis ornata Common IT
Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum Common throughout
Diademed Tanager Stephanophorus diadematus Common at high altitude, IT
Violaceous Euphonia Euphonia violacea Three records CH and UB
Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris Two CH
Chestnut-bellied Euphonia Euphonia pectoralis Several UB and IT
Green-headed Tanager Tangara seledon Common UB AN IT
Red-necked Tanager Tangara cyanocephala Common UB/AN
Brassy-breasted Tanager Tangara desmaresti Several IT
Gilt-edged Tanager Tangara cyanoventris Several IT
Burnished-buff Tanager Tangara cayana flava One CH and five IT
Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana Common in forest areas
Swallow-Tanager Tersina viridis Thinly distributed in forest
Red-crested Finch Coryphospingus cucullatus common PAN CH UB
Bay-chested Warbling-Finch Poospiza thoracica A pair IT
Red-rumped Warbling-Finch Poospiza lateralis At least four IT
Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola Common Pan and two AN
Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch Emberizoides herbicola One CH
Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina Common except IT
Plumbeous Seedeater Sporophila plumbea Several CH
Rusty-collared Seedeater Sporophila collaris Several PAN
Double-collared Seedeater Sporophila caerulescens Scattered records
White-bellied Seedeater Sporophila leucoptera One PAN
Lesser Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis Two PAN
Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus Four CH
Grayish Saltator Saltator coerulescens Common PAN
Green-winged Saltator Saltator similis One IT
Thick-billed Saltator Saltator maxillosus One IT
Black-throated Saltator Saltator atricollis Several CH

Troupials and Allies
Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus Scarce PAN and UB
Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela Common PAN
Red-rumped Cacique Cacicus haemorrhous Local UB/IT
Solitary Cacique Cacicus solitarius Common PAN
Epaulet Oriole Icterus cayanensis Common PAN
Campo Oriole Icterus jamacaii Common PAN
Unicolored Blackbird Agelaius cyanopus Common PAN
Scarlet-headed Blackbird Amblyramphus holosericeus Two males PAN
Chopi Blackbird Gnorimopsar chopi Common PAN/CH
Bay-winged Cowbird Molothrus badius Common PAN
Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis Common throughout
Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora Local PAN and UB


CALLITRICHIDAE (Marmosets & Tamarins)
Bare-ear Marmoset Callithrix argentata melanura Six PAN

CEBIDAE (Monkeys)

Brown Capuchin Monkey Cebus apella ssp. Four PAN
Black-and-gold Howler Alouatta caraya Two PAN
Masked Titi Monkey Callicebus personatus Heard on two days IT


South American Fox Dusicyon vetulus Two PAN and one CH


Crab-eating Racoon Procyon cancrivorus One PAN
South American Coati Nasua nasua Noted daily PAN


Southern River Otter Lutra longicaudis One with a juvenile PAN
Giant River Otter Pteronura brasiliensis Seven PAN

Brazilian Tapir Tapirus terrestris One PAN


Gray Brocket Deer Mazama gouazoubira Three PAN
Red Brocket Deer Mazama americana One,probably of this species, PAN
Marsh Deer Blastocerusdichotomous Six records PAN

SCIURIDAE (Squirrels)
Guianan Squirrel Sciurus aestuans Four IT

Capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris Very common PAN

DASYPROCTIDAE (Pacas, Agoutis and Acouchis)

Azara'sAgouti Dasyprocta azarae One PAN

Pantanal Caiman Caiman c. yacare Very common PAN
Geckos Family Gekkonidae Scattered records
Common Iguana Iguana iguana One PAN
Common Tegu Lizard Tupinambis teguixin One PAN
Giant (Cane)Toad Bufo marinus Two IT
Tree Frogs Hyla spp. Scattered records
Frog Leptodactylus sp One PAN

© The Travelling Naturalist 2004