10 - 17 April 2001

Stephanie & Jim Coghlan


Tuesday 10th April

The leaders and 4 others left Manchester punctually at 8.15 and arrived to a thundery downpour in Heraklion a little ahead of time at 2.10. Met by Stella from Lyttos Travel for refreshments while waiting for the next party from Gatwick who arrived an hour later. Left in a mini-bus at 4.20 for a 3-hour scenic drive along the North Coast via Heraklion, Rethymnon and Chania to Hotel Chrispy. The weather has been variable, they say. We passed through occasional heavy showers and caught glimpses of distant mountains through veils of cloud, distant showers and sun. Windy at the Chrispy Hotel. Along the way we had Swallows and Swifts moving steadily west on the typical migration path. Lots of water visible in the small streams which we pass. The hotel is a new location, and there are fields and rough ground towards the sea and beach a few hundred yards away; the corner of the bay towards the Rhodopi peninsula is not far away. A cheerful welcome from the proprietor and a quick settle in to our apartments after a hearty and welcome dinner. We adjourn to await the arrival of the third party of the tour, who are due in late at Chania airport via the newly opened Athens international airport. We hope to greet them all in the morning....

Sounds of frogs and a glimpse of a Barn Owl over the hotel on our way to bed.

Wednesday 11th April

A clear sky at 7.00 for a morning walk; some distant clouds out to sea. A good selection of birds included Woodchat Shrike, Cetti's Warbler seen and, heard, Green Sandpiper and Little Ringed Plover. Increasingly ominous clouds sweeping in from the sea and building up over the mountains. Back for breakfast to greet last night's latecomers from Athens. A torrential downpour during the pre-trip briefing. A pair of Marsh Harriers before setting off to the Tavronitis River is a good start. A good fast flow of water in the river but not so good for waders. Hirundines were better, with Sand and House Martins and Barn Swallow, and a Painted Lady butterfly was seen. The rain also brought out one of the locals to collect snails for the pot.

Back to the hotel for a quick break and then on to the Skoutelonas River for a short walk to the sea. Common Sandpipers were well seen under the bridge and in the pool by the sea where there were also Wood Sandpiper and Little Stint crossing each other for good size comparisons. Yellow and White Wagtails also appeared together by the pool. A Northern Wheatear, Shags diving offshore, and a flying Grey Heron rounded off a very rewarding stroll.

Lunchtime by now, so on again to picnic by the harbour at Kolimbari gave time to enjoy the views back towards Chania under an improving sky. Some botanising on the slope above the road located fine examples of the endemic Cretan Bee Orchid and Serapias or Tongue Orchids.

On then along the spectacular coast route to Afrata; hardly room in places for Manolis to get the coach beneath the overhanging rock face. Here it was hot and fine enough to remove waterproofs and fleeces for a walk down through the village in the direction of the gorge and the sea. Lovely flowery fields gave roadside interest and the birds too played their part. A fine pair of Collared Flycatchers was well seen and Spotted Flycatcher also. Raven was heard and a very recently deceased Leopard Snake (found on the road) was greatly admired for its beautiful markings. The gorge had several pairs of nesting Kestrels, one of which provoked an outraged chorus of screams from Chukars on the cliff face. Further down Blue Rock Thrush emerged on the cliff, a Nightingale sang and a lovely Black-eared Wheatear flew through. The sea was tested for temperature (but only by hand) before setting back up to the village. Hot after our climb up, we joined a few earlier returners in the two local tavernas for some refreshments. We left for the hotel at 5 o'clock by which time the day seemed very settled.

Back at base a Zitting Cisticola sang and flew behind the hotel, and 6 Glossy Ibis flew in a circuit over the sea after all the local birds had been flushed by the sound of a shot.

Audrey treated us all to wine for dinner to celebrate her birthday and afterwards the hotel dipped the lights and brought her a birthday cake complete with sparklers and candle to complete the occasion. Our friendly resident Animator lady offered us the opportunity to partake in a bingo session or other game of our choice but we somehow resisted the opportunity. A fine clear starry night.

Thursday 12th April

Morning walk to the sea at 7 o'clock under a pleasant sky with a length of cloud along the Rhodopi peninsula. The sun rose at 7.05. Much the same birds as for this time yesterday. A Nightingale sang, Swallows flew past together with Whinchat and Stonechat , and Crested Larks and Sardinian Warbler appeared. The White Mountains appeared for the first time with a good covering of snow on the highest ridge. We left at 9.00 for our tour of the centre and south, and now a lovely sunny day. Manolis says confidently that it won't rain. Along the new road past Chania to a stop at the Petres river bridge. For once, not a bird to be seen (other than some sparrows) probably due to 3 young men wading about in the river and carrying a large collecting net which seemed to hold some terrapins. We guessed that they might be university students doing research work?

On then to the Minoan cemetery at Armeni for a walk in the delightful oak wood around the excavated stone graves. Most were close to the rock surface, but one of the best specimens has a lighted chamber at the foot of a set of carved steps and a short entrance tunnel, sloping inwards and upwards but open to the sky. The last few feet involved some rocky stepping stones through a muddy puddle but we made it without incident. An intriguing experience. The woodland was full of fine plants including good Woodcock Orchid, Yellow Bee Orchids and Pyramidal Orchid, and the whole area was carpeted with the white flowers of Gagia Greca. Stephanie gave a concise anatomical explanation of the Italian (or Naked Man) Orchid to help those who could not instantly spot the reason for the name. Ron captured this little explanation on video, so keep an eye on your TV after the watershed hour. A very vocal Wren made an appearance just before we left. A brief comfort stop in Armeni village followed.

We drove on to the impressive walls of the Kourtaliotiko gorge for a couple of stops. Griffon Vultures flew over the ridge, Jackdaws and Rock Doves were seen and Crag Martins were well seen below in the river. Ravens and Kestrels completed the picture, but the Blue Rock Thrushes could only be heard and not seen.

The weather on the South side of the mountains facing the Libyan sea was more cloudy with banks of woolly clouds partly obscuring the ridges and continuing out to sea. The landscape views down to the bay of Plakias and beyond were delightful. We found a newly constructed picnic area above the village of Myrtios and had a very pleasant picnic lunch before driving on to Frangokastello. The narrow village street of Rodakino called for great skill and patience from Manolis to coax the coach through the narrowest of gaps between parked cars and a very high stone wall. At Frangokastello, the beach area was well populated with sunbathers, visitors and swimmers so only a solitary Common Sandpiper was seen.

After a brief tour of the castle and the coastal area rough ground, we continue towards the Imbros gorge. Having climbed through the curves of the pass road we stopped for drinks at Imbros, and some tried the delicious local cheese pie, which were like pancakes filled with cheese and served with a pouring jar of Cretan mountain honey. Leaving Imbros we headed down to the coastal plain. The road down to Vrisses has been further improved since last year and there are new wide curves bypassing some of the former zigzags. We rapidly got down to the coast road and returned to the hotel for 6.15. It had been a grand day out in lovely warm conditions. There was time for relaxing or walks to the beach before dinner, and a passing Marsh Harrier provided some late interest.

Good Friday 13th April

Most people were woken several times in the night by the gusting and increasingly strong wind. The 7.00 am walk started in windy but mild and overcast conditions. In addition to the usual sightings, there appeared to be some migrant movement: Yellow Wagtails flew west along the beach and there were Short-toed Larks and Barn Swallows.

After breakfast we left for Chania where we were dropped off at the harbour. A Sandwich Tern was seen on the offshore rocks and there were numbers of Swifts over the town. Stephanie did a quick guided tour of the old town and its Turkish/Venetian buildings for some of the group and then we separated to enjoy the shops, museums and the market. The Nautical Museum was open but the Archaeological Museum unfortunately was closed until 12 due to Good Friday. The main street was filled with the sound of plain chant from the Greek Orthodox cathedral and the whole town generally seemed very busy due to Easter shopping. Coffees were enjoyed at the harbour front tavernas before heading off to the Venizelou Graves park overlooking the town harbour and coast for lunch. Here it was sunny and invisible Serins were singing in the pines as we arrived, and we enjoyed the fine view down to the town and along the coast as we ate. We were accompanied by a constant tolling of a 3-bell sequence from the little Chapel in the park at about 4 second intervals, which appeared to be destined to continue for a long time yet. Many local people arrived to visit the chapel and its decorated icons for a short while and there was an air of sober piety about the occasion A fine Hawk Moth at the Chapel doorway was later identified as Hyles nicacea, similar to a Bedstraw Hawk Moth and found only in Mediterranean Europe

After lunch we drove to the Akrotiri Peninsula and the Monastery of Gouvernatou where we set off down the slope towards the sea and the lower sister monasteries. The wind was much cooler and it had become overcast again by now. Little bird movement was evident but some good flowers were seen including fine examples of the blue Gynandriris monophylla. We turned back as the weather grew darker and reached the bus just as a light shower started. Going back down to Agia Triada monastery, we stopped the coach in the middle of the very tight bends to get good views of 2 Chukar Partridges at the roadside. At the monastery we walked in the adjacent fields and along the edge of the vineyard where we saw a considerable number of Whinchats in particular. We left in light rain and very dull weather but it improved steadily closer to Chania and it was fine and sunny again back at the Hotel Chrispy. Some walked down to the beach later and a lot of migrants had come in. There were good numbers of Whinchat and Northern Wheatears in all the fields and Yellow Wagtails also. 3 Squacco Herons were flushed from a very wet field, and a single Glossy Ibis flew by showing very iridescent wings. A very varied day with a lot of interesting experiences.

Dinner was a Good Friday special meal with fish in the main and starter courses and we enjoyed some carafes of Cretan white wine to accompany it.

Easter Saturday 14th April

Cool wind at 7.00 with a lot of cumulus and the White Mountains obscured . Swallows moving West on the beach included one Red-rumped Swallow. A possible Quail was flushed by the foreshore and a Squacco Heron was seen near the hotel.

We left at 9 for Agia reservoir and walked to the dam end of the lake. A whole range of activity under a LIFE program has taken place since last year. A field of rough ground has been ploughed and cleared. There is a new stone frontage to the dam and the dam top now has a concrete walkway along the top, and bush cover there has been removed. A large stone building is being constructed and a Danish birdwatcher told us that there would be a cafeteria there. (We find out later that this is an illegal construction and the matter is with the courts)

Despite the work the reservoir was filled with Hirundines including mainly Swallows and Sand Martins and some House Martins. Little Grebe, Coot and Moorhen, and a number of Shoveler, Common Sandpiper and a flying Purple Heron were all very interesting. Little Crakes, both male and female, were seen well.

When we left for Omalos the mountains had cleared and the air was cool and fresh. Arriving there at 11.30 we had drinks near a log fire at the Taverna Ellenicos before taking a flower walk in the fields in sunshine. A lovely example of a Peony in flower was the highlight, and as we looked we could hear Woodlarks singing out on the plateau. We drove on to the top of the Samaria gorge to have our lunch on the seats above the entrance in very pleasant sunshine. Some good birds flew above and below us including Chough, Crag Martin, Raven, Blue Rock Thrush and a Griffon Vulture in a plunging display flight.

Down to the plateau again for a flower stop. Stunning sheets of anemones and lovely specimens of Tulip bakerii along with the Milk Orchid, Orchis lactea, and Yellow Bee Orchid. We stopped at the swallow hole as we left the plateau and saw a single Greenshank there. There were also good views of Wood Lark and Northern Wheatear close by. We came down the Agia Irini road and stopped at the point where both the Libyan sea on the south coast and the Aegean on the north are visible at the same time. We were rewarded by a distant Lammergeier with a characteristic very flat profile and a long tail, and also saw more Griffon Vultures. Our route down was through Prases and Skines to the hotel. Here it was sunny and warm. A walk to the sea showed that yesterday's migrant Whinchats, Wagtails and Wheatears had moved on and there was very little activity. After dinner we relaxed and waited for the late night visit to the Easter ceremony at the old church in Spilia.

The hotel provided long white and red candles with red cord handles for the midnight ceremony. Manolis took us to Spilia and we walked up the long slope and steps to the old church, and joined the queue to squeeze in to the already full and brightly lit church. When the priest finished his sermon the lights were extinguished and after a while the first light of Easter appeared and rapidly passed through the congregation as a double file of people came out in a very orderly manner and passed on the flame. "Kalo Paschas" were exchanged , the church bells rang and firecrackers and rockets went off. We walked back down the slope to the bus and drove home, managing to keep a couple of candles going all the way back to the hotel

Easter Sunday 15th April

A lovely morning, clear bright and sunny. A morning walk had little new but a Stone Curlew was flushed from the scrubby area by the beach. After breakfast we drove to Therisso and strolled through the village and down the hill to the gorge. Along the way we had Raven, Kestrel, Serin, Wren, Buzzard and Goldfinch. Manolis drove down and picked us up and took us back to the hotel to prepare for a grand Easter Sunday dinner. Two lambs had been roasting on spits over wood coals since early morning and we looked forward to a feast. We had a big table outside by the pool in the shelter of the sun and the wind, now quite strong. It was also a good location close to the amplifiers for the 2 musicians who started to entertain us as we ate, with songs and music from Lyra and Laouta. A huge buffet meal appeared: starters of pies, rolls, and various salads followed by a main course of delicious Roast Lamb, Pork steak, Greek style roast potatoes and vegetables. Dessert was cake and yogurt and honey. The meal was accompanied by jugs of red and white wine and water.

However, as we were finishing, the skies darkened, lightning flashed and the thunder crashed and the heavens opened. The musicians unplugged and left rapidly for home, while we enjoyed coffees indoors before a very necessary siesta for most. Later on, some saw Ruff and Little Stint on individual walks along the shore.

Dinner was a somewhat lighter affair, with some more lamb, fish, salad and cheese pie to see us through the night.

Monday 16th April

The morning started with a mainly clear sky, and cool. Squacco Heron, Tawny Pipit and Marsh Harrier on the morning walk.

After breakfast we packed up and left the Chrispy Hotel at 9 o'clock, bound for Gouves on the far side of Heraklion. We stopped at Agia reservoir briefly where there were hirundines still in good numbers. We had another view of Little Crake, both male and female Garganey, and as we were leaving in the coach, views of 2 Cattle Egrets with a flock of sheep in a field. We called at Souda Bay war cemetery for a brief visit, before going on to drive past the Lake at Georgioupolis. Little of interest apart from Coot so we continued to the harbour and had a picnic in the shade.

Traffic was light due to the Easter holiday so we made good time to Knossos for 2.30. Here some of the group had a guided walk, while others did a self-guided tour on their own. Another group walked around the lanes behind the site and had good views of Hoopoe. There was still time to enjoy a good hour and a half at the Heraklion Archaeological museum, which was delightfully empty so that we were able to enjoy the exhibits to the full. Again the Heraklion streets were unusually empty of traffic. Arriving at the Creta Sun Hotel we said goodbye to our driver Manolis who was returning to Chania, and settled in to our rooms before trying the free bar for aperitifs. A checklist was completed against an amazing background din of human activity reverberating around the marble surfaces of the hotel. Dinner was at two tables of 8 and huge choices of buffet dishes made it a good final dinner. As everything was free, wine and all, we were unable to provide anything extra to Angela for her Birthday except our good wishes.

Tuesday 17th April

An early morning walk had excellent views of a Chukar perched on a garden wall in the grounds. A good range of birds was seen close to the hotel including Blackwinged Stilt and Spanish Sparrows. After breakfast a group walk went along the marshy area as far as the Aposelemis River. The sky was now overcast and the breeze was becoming fresh. A good variety of birds include the Stilts again, Wood Sandpiper, Redthroated Pipit, Little Stint, and a Common Buzzard mobbed by Hooded Crows. A Purple Heron was flushed from the river reeds and a Little Egret flew also.

Farewells were said at mid-day as taxis arrived to take groups in stages for their different flights. Early leavers had a lunch box while others had a little more time to enjoy a lunch at the table. The last group left at 2.00 including the leaders and we were fairly sure that no one had escaped from the airport to stay and enjoy some more time on this lovely island.

Stephanie & Jim Coghlan


Little Grebe: 6 + at Agia reservoir on 14.4. and 16.4.

Cory's Shearwater: A couple far out from Creta Sun, Gouves on 17.4. were probably this species.

Shag : 4 offshore at River Spiliakos 11.4 and one off Chania 13.4.

Grey Heron: Only two records: one on 11.4. and 12.4 at Agia reservoir and one over Chania.

Purple Heron: 1 on 14.4. with one at Agia reservoir and 2 on 16th at Georgioupolis and one at Aposelemis river on 17.4.

Little Egret: Singles or 1-2 recorded everyday.

Cattle Egret: 2 at Agia reservoir with a flock of sheep 16.4.

Squacco Heron: Recorded at Rapaniana 1-3 from 13.4.

Teal: One at Agia on 14.4.

Shoveler: 10+ at Agia on 14.4. and 4 there 16.4.

Mallard: 2 at Agia on 14.4. and there 16.4.

Garganey: 2 at Agia on 16.4.

Griffon Vulture: Singles seen on the 12th and 7 over Omalos on the 14th.

Lammergeier: One seen over Agia Irini on 14th

Marsh Harrier: Sightings daily of passage birds from 11.4.-16.4.

Common Buzzard: Resident birds recorded in pairs daily including display flights over Plakias.

Kestrel: Common; recorded daily.

Chukar: Seen at Akrotiri and heard at Afrata and seen in the garden at the Creta Sun Hotel.

Quail: Two flushed at different times from Rapaniana beach.

Little Crake: 2 seen well at Agia a female and a male on 14.4 and 16.4.

Moorhen: Singles seen in wet areas but 10+ at Georgioupolis on 10.4 and 30+ there on 16.4.

Common Coot: A few at Agia reservoir were the only records.

Black-winged Stilt: Two at Creta Sun lagoon 17.4.

Stone Curlew: 1 flushed from beach scrub at Rapaniana on 15.4.

Little Ringed Plover: Common in ones and twos at rivers and on the beach.

Greenshank: Two at river Spiliakos on 11.4 and singles at Agia and Omalos swallowhole.

Green Sandpiper: One at Rapaniana on 11.4. and two there 15.4.

Wood Sandpiper: Singles at River Spiliakos and at Creta Sun lagoons and Agia.

Common Sandpiper: Common in ones and twos at rivers and on the coast.

Little Stint: Singles at River Spiliakos and small numbers at Creta Sun lagoons

Ruff: One with a Little Stint at River Spiliakos.

Yellow-legged Gull: Common

Black-headed Gull: 2 regularly in the fields at Rapaniana

Sandwich Tern: One on the artificial rocks at mouth of Chania harbour.

Rock Dove/ Feral Pigeon: True Rock Doves seen in Kourtaliotiko Gorge otherwise Feral pigeons common

Turtle Dove: 2 seen on 15th

Collared Dove: Seen in towns only, Chania, Rethymnon and Iraklion areas.

Cuckoo: Heard briefly on 14th at Agia.

Barn Owl: glimpsed briefly at Chrispy Hotel.

Alpine Swift: Small flocks moving through from 11.4.

Common Swift: Small numbers seen daily.

Hoopoe: Singles seen briefly from the bus from 11th and 3 seen well at nest hole at Knossos.

Short-toed Lark: Two on the beach at Rapaniana. 13.-14.4. and 5 there 15.4.

Crested Lark: Common seen and heard daily

Woodlark: Singing birds on Omalos on 14.4.

Sand Martin: Small numbers passing through recorded daily.

Crag Martin: Small flocks of 2-10 in the mountains at Omalos, Imbros and Kourtaliotiko Gorges.

Barn Swallow: Common daily in small numbers but over 1000 at Agia on 14th.

Red-rumped Swallow: Singles seen daily with the flocks of swallows

House Martin: Good numbers seen..

Yellow Wagtail: Flocks of 10+ almost daily; mainly Black-headed race.

White Wagtail: 1-2 seen on three days

Tawny Pipit: 2 on beach at Rapaniana 16.4.

Red-throated Pipit: Two at Creta Sun lagoon on 17.4.

Woodchat Shrike: First recorded 11.4. and then several recorded everyday.

Wren: Common in the mountains. Many holding territories in Therisso Gorge.

Blue Rock Thrush: Recorded in the gorges at Afrata, Therisso, Akrotiri and Kourtaliotiko.

Blackbird: Common

Nightingale: Heard at Afrata, regularly at suitable cover and at Agia on 14.4. and 16.4.

Black Redstart: One female at Afrata on 11th.

Whinchat: Recorded daily with up to 60 on 13th.

Stonechat: Common; already breeding.

Northern Wheatear: Seen everyday 1-3 and over 15 recorded on 13th

Black-eared Wheatear: First record 3 on 11.4. then recorded daily in the west.

Fan-tailed Warbler ( Zitting Cisticola): Regular along the coast at Rapaniana.

Cetti's Warbler: Common; heard frequently everyday and seen well at Rapaniana.

Moustached Warbler: Single at Agia 16.4.

Olivaceous Warbler: Seen and heard at Aposelemis River.

Willow Warbler: One on the 13th was the only record.

Sardinian Warbler: Common breeding bird in all habitats.

Goldcrest: 3 in Therisso Gorge on Easter Sunday.

Spotted Flycatcher: 2+ at Afrata and one at Armeni.

Collared Flycatcher: Two at Afrata and 3 at Agia Triada

Great Tit: Common

Blue Tit: Common

Red-billed Chough: Three over the Samaria Gorge on 14th

Jackdaw: Recorded in the mountains.

Hooded Crow: Common recorded daily

Common Raven: Recorded in ones and twos almost daily.

Cirl Bunting: Singing males heard on Omalos 14.4.

Corn Bunting: Singing males from the bus at Frangocastello.

Chaffinch: Common

European Serin: Singing at Venizelou Graves, Therisso and at Souda Bay

Green finch: Common

Goldfinch: Common in small flocks

Linnet: Small flocks in the mountains

Italian Sparrow: Common, nesting everywhere

Spanish Sparrow: Moving through in small flocks at Rapaniana most mornings. Seen well on the fences near the hotel.


Peacock at Moni Gonias at Kolimbari

Pheasant heard at Frangocastello

Guinea Fowl


Common Tree Frog Hyla arborea Recorded at Agia reservoir and at Rapaniana.

Cretan Frog Rana cretensis Heard at the hotel pool every night and at wet areas in the daytime.

Leopard Snake Elaphe situla Seen recently dead at Afrata.


Balkan Green Lizard Lacerta trilineata Adults and the brown striped young recorded nearly everyday.

Stripe-necked Terrapin Mauremys caspica Seen at River Spiliakos .and the Aposelemis river.


Egyptian Grasshopper Anacridium aegyptium Common

Violet Carpenter Bee Xylocopa violacea Common

Black & White Cuckoo Bee Melecta luctuosa One on Akrotiri

Cretan Soldier Beetle Lygaeus saxitilis Common

Dung Beetle sp A few seen

7 Spot ladybird Coccinella 7-punctata Common


Scarce swallowtail

Eastern Festoon

Large White Common

Small White Common

Clouded Yellow Common

Cleopatra A few recorded

Small Copper A few recorded

Common Blue Small numbers

Red Admiral Common

Painted Lady Common on migration

Mediterranean Speckled Wood A few recorded

Wall Brown A few recorded

Dingy Skipper A single recorded.

Bath White Several females recorded and some males.


Hyles nicacea Mediterranean Hawk Moth sp.


Mediterranean Scorpion Iurus dufoureius (Brown or black up to 17cm long prefer wet & warm places and dig burrows.) Small one seen on Omalos and a large one pickled in a jar.


Cretan Door Snail Albinaria inflata Recorded on rocks on Omalos.

Banded Snail Cernuella virgata Common

Mediterranean White Snail Albea candidissima


Eastern Hedgehog Dead on the road

Beech Marten Droppings and several dead on road.

Weasel One live at Therisso.

PLANT LIST - Some highlights from the 1999, 2000 and 2001 trips

Numbers refer to Grey Wilson & Blamey "Mediterranean Wild Flowers"

Pinus brutia 2

Pinus pinea Stone Pine 3

Cupressus sempervirens Italian Cypress 11

Ephedra fragilis Joint Pine 20

Quercus coccifera Kermes Oak 24

Quercus aegilops Valonia Oak 28

Morus alba White Mulberry 41

Ficus carica Fig 42

Urtica pilulifera Roman Nettle 48

Salicornia sp. Samphire 85

Bougainvillea glabra Bougainvillea 110

Caprobrotus edulis Hottentot Fig 115

Silene behen Catchfly 168

Silene colorata 180

Kohlrauschia velutina Proliferous pink 187

Anemone coronaria Crown anemone 211

Anemone heldreichii 215

Adonis microcarpa Yellow Pheasant's eye 222

Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine 252a

Ranunculus ficaroides 253

Ranunculus asiaticus Turban buttercup 257

Paeonia clusii Clusius' peony 271

Glaucium flavum Yellow horned poppy 293

Fumaria sp. Fumitory 300

Ricotia cretica Ricotia 319

Aubretia deltoidea Aubretia 324

Matthiola sinuata Sea Stock 326

Matthiola tricuspidata Three-horned Stock 329

Biscutella didyma Biscutella 341

Brassica tourneforti Wild Cabbage 357

Sarcopoterium spinosum Thorny Burnet 411

Prunus dulcis Almond 421

Eriobotrya japonica Loquat 429

Cercis siliquastrum Judas tree 430

Ceratonia siliqua Carob, Locust Tree 431

Medicago marina Sea medicago 605

Trifolium fragiferum Strawberry clover 652

Trifolium stellatum Starry clover 662

Oxalis pes-caprae Bermuda Buttercup 735

Linum arboreum Tree Flax 769

Euphorbia dendroides 792

Euphorbia acanthothamnos Hedgehog spurge 794

Euphorbia characias 818

Ricinus communis Castor oil Plant 824

Citrus limon Lemon tree 832

C. sinensis Orange 836

C. paradisi Grapefruit 839

Melia azederach Indian Bead Tree 843

Cistus creticus Cretan Cistus 962

Cistus parviflorus Small-leaved Cistus 964

Cistus salvifolius Sage-leaved Cistus 965

Tuberaria guttata Spotted rockrose 985

Frankenia laevis Sea heath 1027

Bryonia cretica Cretan bryony 1033

Smyrnium connatum Yellow Alexanders 1092

Scandix pecten-veneris Shepherds needle 1097

Ferula communis Giant Fennel 1141

Tordylium apulum Tordylium 1149

Erica arborea Tree Heather 1178

Anagallis arvensis var. caeruleaBlue Pimpernel 1198

Cyclamen creticum Cretan cyclamen 1208

Limonium sinuatum Winged Sea Lavender 1220

Olea europea Olive 1248

Centaurium maritimum Seaside Centaury 1255

Buglossoides purpurocaerulea Purple Gromwell 1348

Echium italicum Italian echium 1380

Echium angustifolium Red echium 1382

Cynoglossum creticum Blue Houndstongue 1402

Anchusa variegata Anchusa 1415

Phlomis fruticosa Jeruslaem sage 1455

Lavandula stoechas French Lavender 1528

Hyoscamus niger Henbane 1556

Mandragora officinarum Mandrake 1574

Scrophularia lucida Figwort 1587

Verbascum arcturus Cretan mullein 1606

Bellardia trixago Bastard Balm 1653

Orobanche ramosa Branched broomrape 1655

Orobanche pubescens 1669

Orobanche crenata 1675

Phagnalon rupestre Shaving brush bush 1831

Chrysanthemum coronarium Crown Daisy 1895

Galactites tomentosa Galactites 1971

Silybum marianum Milk Thistle 1982

Centaurea solstitialis Yellow Star-thistle 1994

Tragopogon porrifolius Salsify 2055

Geropogon hybridus Small Salsify 2056

Asphodelus aestivus Asphodel 2089

Asphodeline lutea Yellow asphodeline 2092

Gagea graeca Greek Gagea 2102

Gagea fistulosa Yellow Gagea 2105

Tulipa bakeri Tulip 2146

Tulipa cretica Cretan tulip 2147

Chionodoxa cretica

Ornithogalum sp. 2160

Muscari comosum Tassel hyacinth 2201

Allium roseum Rosy garlic 2224

Allium ampeloprasum Wild leek 2237

Iris tuberosus Widow Iris 2283

Iris cretensis Cretan Iris 2285

Gynandriris sisyrinchium Barbary Nut Iris 2305

Gynandriris monophylla One-leaved Nut Iris 2306

Romulea bulbocodium Sand crocus 2314

Arum italicum 2361

Arisarum vulgare Friar's cowl 2377

Aceras anthropophorum Man orchid 2399

Dracunculus vulgaris Dragon arum 2358

Orchis papilionacea Pink butterfly orchid 2401

Orchis lactea Milky orchid 2408

Orchis italica Naked man orchid 2409

Orchis pauciflora Provence (Few-flowered) orchid 2417a

Orchis quadripunctata Four spotted orchid 2419

Ophrys lutea Yellow bee orchid 2423

Ophrys fusca Brown bee orchid 2424

Ophrys omegiphera 2424(a)

Ophrys mammosa Early spider orchid 2428

Ophrys spruneri Greek spider orchid 2429

Ophrys scolopax Woodcock orchid 2436

Ophrys cretica Cretan Bee Orchid 2437

Ophrys fuciflora Late Spider Orchid 2440

Ophrys tenthredinifera Sawfly orchid 2442

Barlia robertiana Giant orchid 2446

Lagurus ovatus Haresfoot grass 2473

Serapias lingua Tongue orchid 2451

Serapias parviflora Few-flowered Serapias 2452

Oxalis pes-caprae Bermuda buttercup

Eruca vesicana

Raphanus raphanistrum Wild radish

© The Travelling Naturalist 2001