TRAVELLING NATURALIST TRIP REPORT

Costa Rica

24th February - 11th March 2001


Leaders:
Keith Grant

Mauricio Quesada

Weather:

Generally hot and often humid throughout, with only the occasional light shower. Heavy rain occurred during our last night at Selva Verde Lodge. Trogon Lodge was definitely chilly (!), but then we had become largely acclimatized to the heat over the preceding 11 days.

Daily Diary:

Saturday 24th February: Arrival

Arrival at Juan Santamaria International Airport on various flights and transfer to the hotel.

Sunday 25th February: Lake Coter

Four of us ventured out for a pre-breakfast walk, immediately finding Great-tailed Grackles, Clay-coloured Robins, Chestnut-collared Sparrows, White-winged Doves and Tennessee Warblers right opposite the hotel. Further along the road in a small area of 'wooded parkland' we found pairs of Orange-chinned Parakeets and Hoffman's Woodpeckers. A White-tailed Kite, closely related to our Black-shouldered Kite, was also visible sitting on a tree in the valley. A 'welcome breakfast' was the first time that the whole group was together and we were introduced to Mauricio and Henry, our guide and driver respectively, and to Jackie from Horizontes Nature Tours. We then loaded the bus for our drive north to the beautiful heart-shaped Lake Coter in the Guanacaste Mountains. En route, we passed the Arenal Volcano, which was being rather active with several rock falls cascading down the sides. Birds were present wherever we stopped and we had excellent views of Short-tailed Hawks, and the Grey and Roadside Hawks prompted some discussion. We then had excellent views of several Keel-billed Toucans and a male Pale-billed Woodpecker coming to a nest-hole. Several Black-cheeked Woodpeckers were also seen. A Piratic Flycatcher at the roadside, Eastern Meadowlark, Variable Seedeater, several Brown Jays, a nice male Red-legged Honeycreeper, a Montezuma Oropendola colony and then later a small flock of these large Icterids coming to take earth from a roadside bank all added to a rapidly expanding list. A party of Mantled Howler Monkeys was found in trees overhanging the road and, a bit later, a White-nosed Coati scrounged tit-bits from the bus alongside the road. Arriving at the Lake Coter Eco-Lodge, we had excellent views of Passerini's and Golden-hooded Tanagers on the feeding table, together with Buff-throated and Greyish Saltators and further Yellow-throated Euphonias.

Monday 26th February: Lake Coter & on to Palo Verde NP

We awoke surrounded by low cloud, but even so, the pre-breakfast walk took an hour and a half to get from our cabins to the dining room! A pair of Orange-breasted Trogons sat on the wire, various Chestnut-sided Warblers, Mistletoe Tyrannulet, Red-billed Pigeon, Rose-breasted Grosbeaks and White-necked Jacobin were also seen. We had excellent views of a Black-cheeked Woodpecker punching holes in the top of the roadside lamp-post, a Rufous-tailed Hummingbird was found near Reception and a Swallow-tailed Kite came very low overhead as the cloud began to lift. After breakfast, we walked partway down the forest trail, finding Little Hermit and an excellent patch of birds including Spotted Woodcreeper, Plain Xenops, Dusky Antbird, Slaty Antwren, a pair of Plain Antvireos and a White-breasted Wood-wren attending a nest beside the trail.

Leaving Lake Coter behind us, we travelled over the central mountain divide on to the Pacific side, stopping at Caos for lunch and entering the Palo Verde National Park soon after. Progress here was again slow with many stops for birds. These included a perched Roadside Hawk, Zone-tailed Hawk overhead, a small group of Collared Aracari flying across the road, Ringed Kingfisher, Brown-crested Flycatcher, Collared Peccary, White-tailed Deer, White-throated Capuchins, and both Ctenosaur and Green Iguanas. Finally, we stopped at a superb wet area with two and a half thousand Black-bellied Whistling-ducks, Roseate Spoonbills and a lovely pair of Double-striped Thick-knees which walked right up to us! We boarded the boat for the short trip along the river, stopping occasionally for parties of White Ibis, Yellow-crowned Night Heron, and Spotted Sandpipers, and arrived at Rancho Humo at dusk.

Tuesday 27th February: Palo Verde NP

Before breakfast, we watched Yellow-naped and White-fronted Parrots flying into the mangroves to feed. A pair of displaying Rufous-naped Wrens nearby gave an excellent performance, and we eventually identified a pair of rather elusive Fork-tailed Emeralds in the trees at the bottom of the drive. After breakfast, we loaded into the boat for a morning trip down-river to view a breeding colony of Wood Storks, finding several Tricoloured Herons and having good views of a single Green-backed Heron. We ended with absolutely stunning views of a Bare-throated Tiger-heron. After a leisurely lunch and a rest, we took the bus to the Laguna de Mata Redonda (a National Wildfowl Refuge), to view the thousands of waterfowl feeding there. Birds of note included at least 25 Jabiru, also at least 30 Fulvous Whistling Ducks and hundreds of Blue-winged Teal. We found a lone Black-crowned Night-heron amongst the Water Hyacinth and two further Green-backed Herons, together with Great Blue Heron, White and Glossy Ibis, Great White, Snowy and hundreds of Cattle Egrets. Three species of Kingfisher, Ringed, Belted and Amazon, were also found, this last species found sitting quietly in a tree by Rita, Yvonne and Daphne whilst the rest of us were standing on the other side looking elsewhere! Several small American Crocodiles also showed themselves in the water, making the local fishermen who were wading thigh-deep nearby look rather nervous. A brief spot-lamping trip in the bus after dinner gave us excellent views of two Ferruginous Pygmy Owls and a single Pacific Screech Owl.

Wednesday 28th February: Palo Verde NP

We looped around the hotel on the lower trail before breakfast, finding Cinnamon Hummingbird and several Prothonotary, Yellow and Tennessee Warblers and Streaked-backed and Baltimore Orioles. Good views of another Coati and several Variegated Squirrels. After breakfast, we returned to the Laguna with the light behind us giving superb visibility over the marsh. Purple Gallinule, Muscovy Ducks, and adult Snail Kite and Bay-winged Hawk were all added to the list. We then tried an area of woodland, searching for a pair of Laughing Falcons which were nesting in the area. No falcons, but we did find a Mangrove Cuckoo and Black-headed Trogon. After lunch, we took the boat upriver to find a good number of American Crocodiles hauled out on the muddy banks - one was a real monster, probably some 4 metres in length! There was also an excellent view of an adult Boat-billed Heron sitting quietly in an overhanging mangrove. Several Basilisks or 'Jesus Christ' Lizards were also sunning themselves on the banks, so called because of their ability to walk on water. A small flock of 30 Western Sandpipers were also seen well. Returning to the quayside and walking back up to the hotel, a Nine-banded Armadillo was rummaging in the leaf litter, accompanied by a Groove-billed Ani, obviously hoping for tit-bits. Then we found a Lesser Nighthawk roosting on a branch, until it was disturbed by a Kingbird.

Thursday 1st March: Travel to Carara NP

The early birds walked down to the old huts below the lodge, finding two Turquoise-browed Motmots, a host of Variegated Squirrels, another Nine-banded Armadillo and at least two Rose-throated Becards. The rest of us also managed to catch up with Cinnamon Hummingbird. Then, after breakfast, we loaded the bus and headed for the Tempisque River crossing where at least 50 Laughing Gulls accompanied the ferry. At La Ensenada Refuge, we found several hundred Blue-winged Teal in the lagoon, together with Short-billed Dowitchers and a lone Wilson's Phalarope. A small party of Western and Least Sandpipers immediately in front of the viewing platform prompted vigorous discussions on identification (and several headaches!). Lunch at the Lodge was accompanied by a pair of cheeky White-throated Magpie-Jays and interrupted by a sighting of a metre-long Roadguarder (snake). We then went off to explore the salt-pans, stopping en route for Rose-throated Becard, Plain-capped Starthroat and a whole tree-full of Green-breasted Mangos (hummers that is, not fruit!) Then at the Tarcoles River bridge, we found Northern Waterthrush, Common Tody-flycatcher, a further pair of Turquoise-browed Motmots, Green Kingfisher and several Scarlet Macaws flew over. We checked in at Villa Lapas just before dusk.

Friday 2nd March: Carara NP

We all decided on an early walk along one of the Carara Forest trails. Before even getting to the forest entrance, we found two Chestnut-mandibled Toucans on a roadside tree. Then within minutes of leaving the bus on the main road, we were amongst hummingbirds such as Band-tailed Barbthroat, Little Hermit, Scaly-breasted Hummingbird and Blue-throated Goldentail. A Black-throated Trogon showed twice by the path and, after hearing it calling, we had brief views of Fiery-billed Aracari. Woodcreepers included Black-striped, Streak-headed and Tawny-winged. As usual, the antbirds gave us a merry chase, but we eventually had views of a pair of Black-hooded Antshrikes and the rather smaller Dusky Antbird. A Grey-necked Wood-rail dashed across the trail behind us, but didn't stop. A pair of Northern Royal Flycatchers were nesting right beside the path and showed well, as did Northern Bentbill, Common Tody-flycatcher, a Bright-rumped Attila and Rose-throated Becard. Rufous-and-white Wrens showed well, albeit briefly. Heading back to the hotel for breakfast, we ended this early part of the day with a superb adult King Vulture circling low over the trees.

After breakfast, some then relaxed at the hotel, and the rest of us returned to the Carara Forest trail to repeat the earlier walk. This time, Blue Ground-doves showed well, as did Mealy Parrots, Blue-black Grosbeak, Plain Xenops, American Redstart, Yellow-throated Vireo and a pair of Dot-winged Antwrens. Boat-billed Herons were nesting along the shore of the lagoon and we could see into one nest containing two eggs. Good views also of Rufous-tailed Jacamar and both Red-crowned and Lineated Woodpeckers.

Back to Villa Lapas for a leisurely lunch, then down to the Tarcoles Estuary for a couple of hours. Best birds here were Wilson's Plover, Reddish Egret and a pair of Yellow-headed Caracaras. Very close views of Least Sandpiper, Greater Yellowlegs, Semipalmated Plover, Willet and Whimbrel. One of the caracaras stole a fish from a Yellow-crowned Night-heron, even refusing to give it up to its mate! An Osprey was also loitering. Henry showed us a beautiful Pacific Screech-owl, roosting no more than 15 feet above us. Heading back up the road, we stopped for a pair of Masked Tityra, then found pairs of Blue Grosbeaks, Streaked Flycatchers and Cherrie's Tanagers and a single Black-crowned Tityra, amongst others, in the next ten minutes! The daily total ended with 140 species seen or heard!

Saturday 3rd March: Carara NP

The pre-breakfast walk took us up the nature trail from the hotel. Crossing the river, a Bare-throated Tiger-heron was standing on the rocks, and we found our first Olivaceous Woodcreepers and a pair of Pale-billed Wood-peckers. Then as we returned, we surprised a male Painted Bunting from the riverside vegetation. We made two visits back to the Carara National Park, walking a different trail from yesterday. Though the forest was 'sleeping' for quite long periods as we walked, we suddenly came across mixed parties of birds when we didn't know quite where to look next. We found very nice pairs of Baird's and Black-throated Trogons, and we at last obtained good views of a small party of Chestnut-backed Antbirds. There was a classic 'two-bird' situation when we found a male Pale-billed Woodpecker feeding on the same branch with a female Lineated Woodpecker! Other species included a female Blue-crowned Manakin, White-winged Becard, Black-and-white Warbler, Russet Antshrike, Golden-olive Woodpecker, Black-tailed Flycatcher and a female Spot-crowned Euphonia. As we came back towards the carpark, the Orange-collared Manakins were lekking alongside the path and we stood for a while watching five or six males. Daphne, Rita and Yvonne walked on to find a Double-toothed Kite standing on the trail in front of them, whilst the others loitered to try to view a singing Rufous-breasted Wren only to find two Riverside Wrens just beside the path.

A quick walk up the hotel riverside trail after lunch resulted in Long-tailed Manakin being added to the list. Two fine males were duetting together. The return afternoon visit to Carara was quiet with a few further sightings of species picked up in the morning. Then, just as the light was fading and we were approaching the carpark, we found several Grey-chested Doves and then a Black-faced Antthrush and two Spectacled Antpittas appeared on the trail in front of us. After dinner, we took the bus for a brief spot-lamping ride to Tarcoles and back, successfully seeing several Common Opossums, Common Pauraques and a Barn Owl.

Sunday 4th March: Eastwards to Socorro & Selva Verde

Our final pre-breakfast walk at Villa Lapas took us back up the riverside trail again. We had good views of the Long-tailed Manakins, also another brief view of Painted Bunting, good views of Grey-capped Flycatcher, Western Tanager and Rufous-tailed Hummingbird, and we heard a Crested Guan.

Leaving Villa Lapas, we headed east to cross the mountain divide, back to the Caribbean side. A brief stop at a park in San Mateo provided good views of Rose-throated Becard, but no sign of the hoped-for Black-and-White Owl. We then headed for the Socorro area and the Waterfall Gardens with its superb hummingbird feeders there. We were overcome with twelve species of hummingbirds, together with Wilson's Warbler, Red-faced Spinetail and Slate-throated Redstart amongst others. Both Grey and White-tailed Kites flew overhead. Few of the orchids were in flower, but a visit to the butterfly enclosure was well worth it with various Morpho, Papilio and Heliconius species in flight. A few minutes down the road and we stopped at the waterfall, finding a pair of Torrent Tyrannulets feeding on the rocks right up to the spray zone of the waterfall. The veranda and feeders at the San Fernando Mirador, overlooking a second waterfall, were again superb, with further exceptionally close views of hummers together with Silver-throated Tanagers, Passerini's Tanager, Common Bush-tanager, Golden-browed Chlorophonia, Scarlet-thighed Dacnis, Rose-breasted Grosbeaks, Black-headed Brushfinch, both Red-headed and Prong-billed Barbets and Emerald Toucanet. At the roadside, we had our first views of White-crowned Parrots, and at most of the fast-flowing streams we crossed, there were Torrent Tyrannulets and/or Black Phoebe. Arrived at Selva Verde Lodge at dusk.

Monday 5th March: La Selva Biological Station

An early breakfast and we were birding La Selva main drive by 7am. Violaceous Trogon and a group of Banded-backed Wrens were immediately found, and from then on, birds came thick and fast. A party of Grey-headed Chachalacas looked rather incongruous as they climbed amongst the branches but were remarkably light on the wing. A superb male Long-tailed Tyrant showed well, sitting right at the top of a dead tree. Then Black-cowled & Yellow-tailed Orioles, a female Bright-rumped Attila collecting nest material, Blue Dacnis and White-lined Tanager were all seen. A Grey Catbird was a surprise find by the entrance gate to the reserve and pairs of Masked Tityra and Black-cheeked Woodpeckers were attending the semi-dead tree outside the main buildings. A Three-toed Sloth was hanging in a tree beside the staff quarters and on the return walk, we disturbed a Tamandua (anteater) on the path, providing Ian with a superb threat display on its hind legs before climbing a small tree to safety, and allowing the whole group to see it. Eric, one of the resident guides, led the energetic few during the afternoon, finding Cinnamon Becard, Broad-billed Motmot, and a superb female Great Curassow showed well on the opposite bank of the river, dust-bathing for at least ten minutes before we left her to it. Crowned Woodnymph and Blue-chested Hummingbird were both new for the trip. A Black-crowned Pygmy-tyrant showed well in the telescope and a Semiplumbeous Hawk disturbed a Broad-billed Motmot from beside the path. There was another sighting of Three-toed Sloth, this time a half-grown youngster with mum. Everyone also eventually had excellent views of several Black-faced Grosbeaks and Chestnut-headed Oropendola.

Tuesday 6th March: La Selva Biological Station

Half the group was back at La Selva just before 7am, and we had our best views yet of Mealy and Red-lored Parrots, with birds down at eye level feeding in a fruiting tree. A Chestnut-coloured Woodpecker was found near the gate, and was obviously the bird which was excavating a nest hole in a nearby tree. We met Eric again and immediately found three Slaty-tailed Trogons in trees overlooking the main buildings. We then set off on a long walk into the primary forest, finding Violet-headed Hummingbird, Barred Woodcreeper and Rufous Mourner quite quickly. We heard Rufous Motmot but unfortunately no sign, then a Little Tinamou was surprised by the path but disappeared before the rest of us could get on to it, quickly followed by several Slaty-breasted Tinamou calling with one quite close giving excellent views. After about 2 kms (it felt far longer!), we surprised another Tamandua up a tree and also found Lattice-tailed Trogon. As we crossed the main river back to the Centre, two Sungrebes were near the fallen tree, so we walked down to the shore (the Curassow spot from yesterday) and had the most superb views of them swimming back up the river towards us. The final birds as we approached the football pitch were Fasciated and Great Antshrikes and Red-throated Ant-tanager.

The rest of the group had gone with Henry and Maurice back to the San Fernando mirador overlooking the waterfall. The veranda was again a superb spot to view the feeding tubes and tables, and good repeat views were obtained of the chlorophonias, tanagers and hummingbirds from two days ago.

After lunch and a rest, we all explored the grounds of the Selva Verde Lodge itself. As we walked along the river, Maurice was saying that we should keep checking the opposite bank for Sunbittern, and just as the path turned inland, the cry went up - 'Sunbittern!'. Excellent views of not just one, but a pair, of these exquisite birds working their way along the river bank. The views in the telescope were just indescribable, certainly one of the highlights of the trip. Further on, Maurice found both the Green Poison-arrow Frog, Dendrobates auritus (bright blue blotched with black) and the Red-and-blue Poison-arrow Frog or 'Blue Jeans Frog', Dendrobates pumilio (largely red in colour). We had excellent views of Scarlet-rumped Cacique coming down to one of the feeding tables, and further views of Amazon Kingfisher. Another superb day!

Wednesday 7th March:

On to the Cerro del Muerte highlands & Trogon Lodge

Heavy rain all night had eased by dawn and we virtually tripped over three Grey-necked Wood-rails on our pre-breakfast walk around the hotel grounds, or at least they almost tripped over us! We also found several really good Poison-arrow Frogs, Dendrobates auritus. Ian finally caught up with Red-throated Ant-tanager just before we left after breakfast, heading south for San Jose and Trogon Lodge. As we climbed up out of San Jose and the central valley, we started seeing Band-tailed Pigeons, also a very brief view of Sulphur-winged Parakeets at the start of the Cordillera de Talamanca. Lunch at Cerro del Muerte and then stunning views from the bus as we descended towards Trogon Lodge itself. We saw Volcano Junco, Black-billed Nightingale-thrush and Yellow-bellied Siskin from the bus itself; then, just above the Lodge, we had a magical half hour with a female Quetzal, Emerald Toucanet, Ruddy Treerunner, Spot-crowned Wood-creeper, Black-capped and Tufted Flycatchers, Ochraceous Wren, Mountain and Sooty Robins and the most superb Collared Redstart and Long-tailed Silky-flycatchers. Arriving at the Lodge, a male Quetzal was feeding regularly on Avocado just across the valley. With Sooty-capped Bush-tanagers roosting just outside the cabins, we retired to the dining room for fresh trout for dinner, having watched the kitchen staff catch them from the pool outside.

Thursday 8th March: Finca Mirador Quetzales

Early morning on the veranda provided the usual array of hummingbirds - the large Magnificent, the diminutive Volcano, and the intermediate Grey-tailed Mountain-gem, this latter now renamed White-throated Mountain-gem. The Quetzal again appeared on its feeding tree. After breakfast, we drove back up the hill to visit the Finca Mirador Quetzales. Oscar, our guide here, quickly found several very close Quetzals for us, and as we slowly made our way along the track, we found several Black-capped Flycatchers, Streaked Zenops, Ruddy Treerunners, Yellow-winged Vireos and Ochraceous Wren. Several Black-and-yellow Silky-flycatchers and Spangle-cheeked Tanagers also showed well, and we also had really great views of Flame-throated Warbler. Oscar also showed us a pair of Quetzals at the nest and later an old nesthole from last year, a mere three metres from the trail!

After lunch, we returned to Trogon Lodge for an afternoon wandering the grounds or simply at leisure on the veranda, though the more energetic did jump off the bus and walked the last kilometre or so down the riverside trail. Here we found Ruddy-capped Nightingale-thrush, Tufted Flycatcher and another Spotted-crowned Woodcreeper. Several Black-faced Solitaire were singing but unfortunately we just couldn't locate them. Back at the Lodge, the male Quetzal was showing well and we at last positively identified Scintillant Hummingbird at the feeders.

Friday 9th March: Tapanti Wildlife Refuge & back to San Jose

We bade farewell to Trogon Lodge and headed for the Tapanti National Park. En route, Jan glimpsed a Black Guan perched on a roadside shrub, and brief views were obtained as the bus reversed. A party of White-collared Swifts flew over the road. Then on to Tapanti where we did a brief search around the Warden's house and reception area, then walked a kilometre or so of the road. Views of American Dippers on the river below; then a real mixture of birds including Spangle-cheeked Tanager again, Tawny-capped Euphonia, Grey-breasted Wood-wrens, Red-faced Spinetail, Slate-throated Redstarts, Three-striped Warbler, Smoky-brown Woodpecker, Black-bellied Hummingbirds and a pair of Red-headed Barbets. Finally, Jan again found Black Guan (she's obviously got her eye in!), and we had good views of two in the nearby shrubs. Arrived at San Jose mid-afternoon to avoid the worst of the traffic and Maurice, Henry, and Olga from the Horizontes office joined us for the farewell dinner later that evening.

Saturday 10th March: Departure

Departure for the airport and our flight home, arriving back at Heathrow on Sunday 11th.

Species Lists:

Notations used:

Caribbean slope: AR = Arenal area & Lake Coter Eco-Lodge

LS = La Selva NP

SO = Socorro area (Waterfall Gdns & San Fernando Mirador)

SV = Selva Verde Lodge

Pacific shore: CA = Carara area (Villa Lapas & Carara NP)

PV = Palo Verde area

High & mid altitude: TA = Tapanti NP

TL = Trogon Lodge & area

BIRDS:

Tinamous

Great Tinamou: Heard on 3 days at CR.

Little Tinamou: Noted only on 1 day, 1 seen briefly LS on 6th.

Slaty-breasted Tinamou: Noted only on 1 day, 1 seen well & several heard LS on 6th.

Grebes

Pied-billed Grebe: Noted only on 1 day, 4 on roadside pond on 4th.

Least Grebe: Noted on 3 days with up to 3 at PV on 26th & 28th, 5 on roadside pond on 1st.

Anhingas / Darters

Anhinga / American Darter: Noted on 4 days, at PV on 26th - 28th, & CR on 2nd.

Cormorants

Olivaceous / Neotropical Cormorant: Noted on 4 days with up to 30 at PV on 27th & 28th, several on Tempisque River on 1st, 20 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Pelicans

Brown Pelican: Noted on 2 days with 1 near Tempisque Ferry on 1st, c100 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Frigatebirds

Magnificent Frigatebird: Noted on 4 days with 2 over the boat PV on 27th, at least 50 over Tempisque Ferry & La Ensenada lagoon on 1st, c60 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd, 1 CR on 3rd.

Herons, Egrets & Bitterns

Great Blue Heron: Noted on 5 days, at PV on 26th - 28th, 1 at Tempisque Ferry on 1st, 5 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Cattle Egret: Noted most days.

Great [White] Egret: Noted on 8 days, max 5 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Tricolored Heron: Noted on 4 days with up to 6 at PV on 26th - 28th, 2 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Reddish Egret: Noted only on 1 day, 2 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Little Blue Heron: Noted on 9 days, regular each day during 26th - 4th & 6th -7th.

Snowy Egret: Noted on 4 days, PV on 26th - 28th, Tarcoles bridge on 1st.

Green / Green-backed Heron: Noted on 4 days with at least 4 PV on 27th & 28th, singles Tarcoles estuary on 2nd & CR on 3rd.

Yellow-crowned Night-heron: Noted on 5 days with up to 12 at PV on 26th - 28th, singles at La Ensenada saltpans & Tarcoles River bridge on 1st, 15 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Black-crowned Night-Heron: Noted on 2 days, singles at PV on 27th & 28th.

Boat-billed Heron: Noted on 3 days with 1 at PV on 26th, a close adult on the river PV on 28th, nesting pair & c15 seen CR on 2nd.

Bare-throated Tiger-heron: Noted on 6 days with up to 4 at PV on 26th - 28th, singles at Tempisque Ferry on 1st and at CR on 2nd & 3rd.

Storks

Wood Stork: Noted on 5 days, 26th - 2nd, including breeding colony by the river at PV on 27th.

Jabiru: Noted on 2 days with 25 at PV on 27th, 10 there on 28th.

Ibises & Spoonbills

White Ibis: Noted on 6 days, 26th - 3rd, max 40 at PV on 26th, at least 25 at CR on 2nd.

Glossy Ibis: Noted on 3 days with up to 30 at PV on 26th - 28th.

Roseate Spoonbill: Noted on 3 days with up to 30 at PV on 26th - 28th.

Whistling- / Tree-Ducks

Fulvous Whistling-duck: Noted on 2 days with 40 PV on 27th, c.20 PV on 28th.

Black-bellied Whistling-duck: Noted on 3 days with c.2,500 at PV on 26th, fewer numbers noted at PV on 27th & 28th.

Swans, Geese & Ducks

Muscovy Duck: Noted on 2 days with 3 PV on 28th, 6 CR on 2nd.

Blue-winged Teal: Noted on 4 days, up to several hundreds at PV on 26th - 28th, several hundreds at La Ensenada lagoon on 1st.

Northern Shoveler: Noted on 2 days with at least 2 males at PV on 26th & 27th.

New World Vultures & Condors

Turkey Vulture: Noted most days.

[American] Black Vulture: Noted each day.

King Vulture: Noted on 2 days with an adult circling low & close CR on 2nd, another adult over LS on 5th.

Osprey

Osprey: Noted on 5 days with 1 from boat plus 2 over lagoon PV on 27th, singles then at PV on 28th, Tempisque ferry on 1st, Tarcoles estuary on 2nd, over LS on 5th.

Hawks, Eagles & allies

Grey-headed Kite: Noted only on 1 day, 1 over LS on 5th.

American Swallow-tailed Kite: Noted on 5 days with up to 3 at AR on 25th & 26th, at least 3 TL on 7th & 8th, 2 over road as we left TL on 9th.

White-tailed Kite: Noted on 5 days with 1 San Jose & another later on 25th, 2 from bus on 1st, 2 CR on 2nd, 1 at Socorro on 4th, 3 San Jose area on 9th.

Snail Kite: Noted on 2 days with an immature PV on 27th, adult & immature PV on 28th.

Double-toothed Kite: Noted on 2 days with 1 attending a troop of Capuchins at CR on 2nd, 1 on forest trail at CR on 3rd.

Semiplumbeous Hawk: Noted only on 1 day, 1 perched very close to trail at LS on 5th.

White Hawk: Noted only on 1 day, 1 over CR forest on 3rd.

Harris' / Bay-winged Hawk: Noted only on 1 day, an adult over lagoon, PV, on 28th.

Grey Hawk: Noted on 2 days, 1 overhead with vultures on 25th, 1 over Socorro on 4th.

Roadside Hawk: Noted on 3 days with 1 in roadside tree on 25th, 1 at PV on 26th, 1 near La Ensenada on 1st.

Broad-winged Hawk: Noted on 2 days with 3 on roadside on 4th, 1 SO on 6th.

Short-tailed Hawk: Noted on 3 days with 2 pale phase on 25th, 2 white phase PV on 28th, 1 CR on 2nd.

Zone-tailed Hawk: Noted on 3 days with singles at PV on 26th, then briefly from bus on 1st, and near Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Falcons & allies

Crested Caracara: Noted on 3 days with 1 PV on 27th, 3 PV on 28th, 1 at La Ensenada on 1st.

Yellow-headed Caracara: Noted on 2 days with 1 CR & 2 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd, 1 with cattle near Villa Lapas on 3rd.

Laughing Falcon: Noted on 2 days with one heard CR on 2nd, 1 across road in front of bus on 4th.

Collared Forest-falcon: Noted only on 1 day, 1 across in front of bus CR on 4th.

Peregrine Falcon: Noted only on 1 day, 1 in tree at Tarcoles bridge on 1st.

Currassows, Guans & Chachalacas

Grey-headed Chachalaca: Noted only on 1 day, c.12 LS on 5th.

Crested Guan: Noted only on 1 day, heard calling Villa Lapas on 4th.

Black Guan: Noted only on 1 day, 1 on roadside & 2 TA on 9th.

Great Curassow: Noted only on 1 day, a female dust bathing just across the river at LS on 5th.

New World Quail / Wood-Partridges

Spot-bellied Bobwhite: Noted only on 1 day, at least 8 on roadside PV on 28th.

Black-breasted Wood-quail: Noted only on 1 day, heard calling TA on 9th.

Limpkin

Limpkin: Noted on 3 days at PV on 26th & 27th, at least 50 there on 28th.

Rails & Coots

Grey-necked Wood-rail: Noted on 2 days with 2 briefly CR on 2nd, 3 seen very well SV on 7th.

White-throated Crake: Noted only on 1 day, heard calling at AR on 26th.

[American] Purple Gallinule: Noted on 2 days with 4 PV on 28th, 2 from bus on 7th.

Finfoots & Sungrebe

Sungrebe / American Finfoot: Noted only on 1 day, a pair on the river at LS on 6th.

Sunbittern

Sunbittern: Noted only on 1 day, a pair SV on 6th.

Jacanas

Northern Jacana: Noted on 6 days, 25th -2nd.

Stilts & Avocets

Black-necked / S.American Stilt: Noted on 5 days with up to 30 at PV on 26th - 28th, various sightings on 1st, 3 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Thick-knees / Stone-curlews

Double-striped Thick-knee: Noted on 4 days with a pair on 26th, a pair PV on 27th, 3 PV on 28th, 3 on 1st.

Plovers & Lapwings

Grey Plover: Noted only at Tarcoles estuary, 5 on 2nd.

Semipalmated Plover: Noted only at Tarcoles estuary, 2 on 2nd.

Wilson's Plover: Noted only at Tarcoles estuary, at least 6 on 2nd.

Sandpipers, Snipes & allies

Hudsonian Whimbrel: Noted on 4 days with 16 PV on 27th, 1 PV on 28th, at least 5 at La Ensenada saltpans on 1st, 3 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Greater Yellowlegs: Noted only at Tarcoles estuary, 1 on 2nd.

Lesser Yellowlegs: Noted on 2 days with 3 at La Ensenada on 1st, 1 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Solitary Sandpiper: Noted on 4 days with singles on 25th, at PV on 28th & La Ensenada saltpans on 1st, and 3 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Spotted Sandpiper: Noted on 8 days, max 60 at PV on 26th.

Willet: Noted on 5 days, ones & twos at PV on 26th -1st, & Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Ruddy Turnstone: Noted only at Tarcoles estuary, at least 30 on 2nd.

Wilson's Phalarope: Noted only at La Ensenada lagoon on 1st.

Short-billed Dowitcher: Noted only at La Ensenada lagoon, at least 12 on 1st.

Semipalmated Sandpiper: Noted only at La Ensenada saltpans, 2 on 1st.

Western Sandpiper: Noted on 3 days with 30 PV on 28th, 20 at La Ensenada lagoon on 1st, 2 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Least Sandpiper: Noted on 3 days with 1 PV on 27th, 10 La Ensenada lagoon on 1st, 3 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Gulls

Laughing Gull: Noted only at Tempisque ferry, 50 on 1st.

Terns

Royal Tern: Noted on 2 days with 4 PV on 27th, 1 Tempisque ferry on 1st.

Doves & Pigeons

Rock Dove / Feral Pigeon: Noted on 6 days, Feral Pigeons in most towns & villages.

Band-tailed Pigeon: Noted on 3 days with 1 from bus TL on 7th, 10 TL on 8th, several TA on 9th.

Pale-vented Pigeon: Noted only on 1 day, a few on 25th.

Red-billed Pigeon: Noted on 5 days with ones & twos on 25th, at AR on 26th, on roadside wires on 4th, LS on 5th, and on 6th.

Short-billed Pigeon: Noted on 4 days, several heard 'cooing' "Who cooks for me!", at CR on 2nd & 3rd, 1 seen at last LS on 5th, heard again LS on 6th.

White-winged Dove: Noted on 6 days with 6 on 25th, at PV on 26th -28th, various sightings on 1st, 1 in San Mateo park on 4th.

Common Ground-dove: Noted on 4 days, 26th - 1st.

Ruddy Ground-dove: Noted on 6 days with 2 on 25th, then variously noted 1st - 2nd, 4th, & 6th - 7th.

Inca Dove: Noted on 7 days with at least 6 at PV during 26th - 28th, then variously noted on 1st - 4th.

Blue Ground-dove: Noted on 2 days with 3 CR on 2nd, 1 LS on 6th.

White-tipped Dove: Noted on 8 days, up to 3 25th - 26th, 28th - 3rd, & 5th - 6th.

Grey-chested Dove: Noted on 2 days with 3 roosting CR on 3rd, 1 LS on 5th.

Parrots & Macaws

Scarlet Macaw: Noted on 4 days with 3 Tarcoles Bridge on 1st, 18 overall at CR & Tarcoles estuary on 2nd, several pairs CR on 3rd, a pair CR on 4th.

Crimson-fronted Parakeet: Noted on 2 days with various birds on 25th, 6 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Olive-throated Parakeet: Noted only on 1 day, a pair on 25th.

Orange-fronted Parakeet: Noted on 2 days with 5 at PV on 26th, also seen on 1st.

Sulphur-winged Parakeet: Noted only on 1 day, at least 8 very briefly from bus on 7th.

Orange-chinned Parakeet: Noted on 7 days with 2 pairs on 25th, 12 at PV on 26th, 8 from bus PV on 28th, several on 1st, 1 seen well LS on 5th, several on 6th, 1 San Jose on 9th.

Brown-hooded Parrot: Noted only on 1 day, a pair LS on 6th.

White-crowned Parrot: Noted on 3 days with 20+ in roadside tree Socorro on 4th, numerous LS on 5th & 6th.

White-fronted Parrot: Noted on 4 days, various birds seen PV on 26th -28th, 1 at nest-hole at La Ensenada on 1st.

Red-lored Parrot: Noted on 3 days with birds heard CR on 2nd, 8 pairs LS on 5th, a pair LS on 6th.

Yellow-naped Parrot: Noted only on 1 day, PV on 27th.

Mealy Parrot: Noted on 3 days with 6 CR on 2nd, heard CR on 3rd, 1 LS on 6th.

Anis

Groove-billed Ani: Noted on 9 days.

New World Cuckoos

Squirrel Cuckoo: Noted on 7 days, heard calling on 28th, 4 during day on 1st, 2 CR on 2nd, singles Villa Lapas on 4th, LS on 5th & 6th and TA on 9th.

Mangrove Cuckoo: Noted only on 1 day, 1 PV on 28th.

Barn Owls

Barn Owl: Noted only on 1 day, 1 in spot-lamp at Tarcoles on 3rd.

Typical Owls

Pacific Screech-owl: Noted on 3 days with 1 in spot-lamp PV on 27th, 1 at nest-hole on 1st, 1 roosting near Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Ferruginous Pygmy-owl: Noted on 2 days with 2 in spot-lamp PV on 27th, heard calling Villa Lapas on 2nd.

Nightjars & Nighthawks

(Nighthawk species: An unidentified nighthawk at CR on 2nd.)

Lesser Nighthawk: Noted on 2 days with 1 PV on 28th, 1 on tree at La Ensenada on 1st.

Common Pauraque: Noted on 3 days, heard calling PV on 27th & Villa Lapas on 2nd, 3 spot-lit near Tarcoles on 3rd.

Dusky Nightjar: Noted only at TL, heard calling on 7th.

Swifts

White-collared Swift: Noted on 6 days with 15 near Arenal volcano on 25th, 30 Socorro on 4th, over LS on 5th, at least 80 SO on 6th, over bus TL on 7th, small numbers over road plus many high over TA on 9th.

Hummingbirds

Band-tailed Barbthroat: Noted only at CR, 1 on 2nd.

Green Hermit: Noted on 3 days with 1 CR on 2nd, several SO on 4th & 6th.

Long-tailed Hermit: Noted only at CR, 1 on 2nd.

Little Hermit: Noted on 3 days with 2 at AR on 26th, 1 CR on 2nd, 1 Villa Lapas on 3rd.

Scaly-breasted Hummingbird: Noted on 2 days with several at CR on 2nd, only 1 there on 3rd.

Violet Sabrewing: Noted on 3 days with a male CR on 2nd, at least 6 SO on 4th & 6th.

White-necked Jacobin: Noted on 3 days with 3 at AR on 26th, a male LS on 5th, a pair LS on 6th.

Green Violet-ear: Noted on 3 days with 1 SO on 4th, a male TL on 8th, 2 in song TL on 9th.

Green-breasted Mango: Noted only near La Ensenada, at least 8 on 1st.

Violet-headed Hummingbird: Noted only at LS, 2 on 6th.

Green Thorntail: Noted on 2 days with several pairs SO on 4th & 6th.

[Violet-] Crowned Woodnymph: Noted on 3 days with at least 1 LS & SV on 5th, several LS on 6th & from bus on 7th.

Blue-throated Goldentail: Noted on 3 days with 2 CR on 2nd, 1 CR on 3rd, 1 Villa Lapas on 4th.

Blue-chested Hummingbird: Noted only at LS, 1 on 5th.

Steely-vented Hummingbird: Noted only at CR, several on 2nd.

Cinnamon Hummingbird: Noted on 3 days with 2 brief views PV on 28th, 1 PV & 1 later in day on 1st, 1 in park San Mateo on 4th.

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird: Noted on 7 days with 2 on 25th, 1 at AR on 26th, 1 CR on 2nd, 1 SO on 4th, several LS on 5th & 6th, SO on 6th, SV on 7th.

Black-bellied Hummingbird: Noted on 2 days with several SO on 4th & TA on 9th.

Coppery-headed Emerald: Noted on 2 days with several SO on 4th & 6th.

White-bellied Mountain-gem: Noted on 2 days with a few SO on 4th & 6th.

Purple-throated Mountain-gem: Noted only at SO, a few on 4th.

Grey-tailed / White-throated Mountain-gem: Noted on 3 days at TL, at least a male & 2 females on 7th - 9th.

Green-crowned Brilliant: Noted on 2 days with several SO on 4th & 6th.

Fork-tailed Emerald: Noted on 2 days with a pair Rancho Humo on 27th, PV on 28th.

Magnificent Hummingbird: Noted on 3 days at TL, at least 10 on 7th -9th.

Plain-capped Starthroat: Noted only at La Ensenada lagoon, 1 on 1st.

Magenta-throated Woodstar: Noted only at SO, a female on 4th.

Ruby-throated Hummingbird: Noted only at PV, 2 on 28th.

Volcano Hummingbird: Noted on 3 days at TL, up to 5 or so on 7th - 9th.

Scintillant Hummingbird: Noted only at TL, 1 on 8th.

Trogons & Quetzals

Resplendent Quetzal: Noted on 2 days with a female by the road above TL & a male at TL on 7th, 5 at Finca plus a superb male TL on 8th.

Slaty-tailed Trogon: Noted only at LS, 2 seen & others heard on 6th.

Lattice-tailed Trogon: Noted only at LS, 1 seen well on 6th.

Baird's Trogon: Noted only at CR, a pair plus another on 3rd.

Orange-bellied Trogon: Noted only at AR, a pair on 26th.

Black-throated Trogon: Noted on 3 days with a pair CR on 2nd, 3 CR on 3rd, at least 5 LS on 5th.

Black-headed Trogon: Noted on 4 days with ones & twos at PV on 26th, 27th & 1st, 1 near Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Violaceous Trogon: Noted on 2 days, 1 or 2 at LS on 5th & 6th.

Kingfishers

Ringed Kingfisher: Noted on 6 days, singles on 25th, at PV on 26th -28th, LS on 5th & SV on 7th.

Belted Kingfisher: Noted on 4 days, singles at PV on 27th & 28th, Tarcoles estuary on 2nd, LS on 6th.

Amazon Kingfisher: Noted on 3 days, singles PV on 27th & 28th, LS on 6th.

Green Kingfisher: Noted on 6 days, singles at Tarcoles bridge on 1st, Villa Lapas & CR on 2nd & 3rd, LS on 5th & 6th, SV on 7th.

Motmots

Turquoise-browed Motmot: Noted only on 1 day, 2 at PV & 2 at Tarcoles bridge on 1st.

Broad-billed Motmot: Noted only at LS, 2 on 5th.

Rufous Motmot: Noted on 2 days, heard calling at LS on 5th & 6th; unfortunately too far from the trail to be seen.

Blue-crowned Motmot: Noted on 3 days with 1 Villa Lapas on 3rd, a pair Villa Lapas on 4th, 1 San Jose on 9th.

Jacamars

Rufous-tailed Jacamar: Noted only at CR, 1 on 2nd.

American Barbets

Red-headed Barbet: Noted on 2 days with a female SO on 4th, a pair TA on 9th.

Prong-billed Barbet: Noted on 2 days with a pair SO on 4th & 6th.

Toucans

Emerald Toucanet: Noted on 3 days with 2 SO on 4th, a pair SO on 6th, 1 TL on 7th.

Collared Aracari: Noted on 2 days with 5 across road on 26th, 4 LS on 5th.

Fiery-billed Aracari: Noted only at CR, 2 on 2nd.

Keel-billed Toucan: Noted on 6 days with 3 on 25th, 2 at AR on 26th, 1 at roadside on 4th, 1 LS on 5th, LS on 6th, 5 SV on 7th.

Chestnut-mandibled Toucan: Noted on 5 days with a pair CR on 2nd, 2 CR on 3rd, 2 from bus on 4th, 4 LS on 5th, LS on 6th.

Woodpeckers

Acorn Woodpecker: Noted on 2 days with up to 3 TL on 7th & 8th.

Black-cheeked Woodpecker: Noted on 4 days with several on 25th, 1 at Coter Eco-lodge on 26th, a pair nesting at LS on 5th & 6th.

Red-crowned Woodpecker: Noted only on 1 day, 1 CR & a pair Villa Lapas on 2nd.

Hoffmanns' Woodpecker: Noted on 8 days with a pair at San Jose & another later on 25th, several at PV on 26th - 28th (including a pair at nest-hole), several on 1st, several CR & Tarcoles estuary on 2nd, 1 CR on 3rd, 1 San Jose on 9th.

Hairy Woodpecker: Noted on 2 days with 1 TL on 7th, 1 Finca on 8th.

Smoky-brown Woodpecker: Noted only at TA, 1 on 9th.

Golden-olive Woodpecker: Noted only at CR, 1 on 3rd.

Chestnut-coloured Woodpecker: Noted on 2 days with 1 attending nest-hole at LS on 5th & 6th.

Lineated Woodpecker: Noted on 2 days with singles at CR on 2nd & 3rd.

Pale-billed Woodpecker: Noted on 5 days with a pair coming to nest-hole on 25th, up to 5 at CR on 2nd - 3rd, a female LS on 5th and heard calling LS on 6th.

Woodcreepers

Tawny-winged Woodcreeper: Noted only at CR, 1 on 2nd.

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper: Noted on 3 days with 1 Villa Lapas on 4th, 1 or 2 LS on 5th & 6th.

Olivaceous Woodcreeper: Noted only at CR, 4 on 3rd.

Barred Woodcreeper: Noted on 2 days with 1 CR on 3rd, 2 LS on 6th.

Black-striped Woodcreeper: Noted only at CR, 1 on 2nd.

Buff-throated / Cocoa Woodcreeper: Noted only at LS, 2 on 5th.

Spotted Woodcreeper: Noted only at AR, 1 on 26th.

Streak-headed Woodcreeper: Noted on 4 days with singles CR on 2nd & 3rd, and at Villa Lapas on 4th, also 2 LS on 5th.

Spot-crowned Woodcreeper: Noted on 2 days with 1 TL on 7th, 1 Finca on 8th.

Ovenbirds

Red-faced Spinetail: Noted on 2 days with 1 SO on 4th, several TA on 9th.

Ruddy Treerunner: Noted on 2 days with 1 TL on 7th, 2 Finca on 8th.

Plain Xenops: Noted on 4 days with 1 at AR on 26th, 1 CR on 2nd, 3 CR on 3rd, 1 Villa Lapas on 4th.

Streaked Xenops: Noted only at Finca, 1 on 8th.

Antbirds

Fasciated Antshrike: Noted only at LS, a pair on 6th.

Great Antshrike: Noted on 2 days with a female at AR on 26th, a male LS on 6th.

Barred Antshrike: Noted only near Tarcoles estuary, a male on 2nd.

Black-hooded Antshrike: Noted on 2 days, several CR on 2nd, 3 pairs there on 3rd.

Russet Antshrike: Noted only at CR, 2 on 3rd.

Plain Antvireo: Noted only at AR, a pair on 26th.

Streak-crowned Antvireo: Noted only at AR, 1 on 26th.

Slaty Antwren: Noted only at AR, 1 on 26th.

Dot-winged Antwren: Noted on 2 days with several pairs CR on 2nd & 3rd.

Dusky Antbird: Noted on 4 days with 1 at AR on 26th, 2 CR on 2nd & 3rd, 1 Villa Lapas on 4th.

Chestnut-backed Antbird: Noted on 7 days, heard calling at AR on 25th, a pair seen there on 26th, up to 5 CR on 2nd & 3rd, 1 SV on 5th & 7th, 1 LS on 6th.

Antthrushes & Antpittas

Black-faced Antthrush: Noted on 2 days with 1 seen at dusk CR on 3rd, and heard calling Villa Lapas on 4th.

Spectacled Antpitta: Noted only at CR, 2 on path at dusk on 3rd.

Tyrants Flycatchers

Mistletoe / Paltry Tyrannulet: Noted on 2 days with 1 at AR on 26th, 1 LS on 5th.

Golden-crowned Spadebill: Noted only at CR, 1 on 3rd.

Yellow-bellied Elaenia: Noted on 2 days with 2 Villa Lapas on 2nd, 2 LS on 5th.

Mountain Elaenia: Noted on 2 days, at TL on 7th, & at least 2 at Finca on 8th.

Torrent Tyrannulet: Noted on 3 days with at least 3 SO on 4th, and ones & twos TL on 8th & 9th.

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher: Noted on 2 days at LS, heard on 5th & 2 seen on 6th.

Yellow Tyrannulet: Noted only at LS, 1 on 6th.

Black-capped Pygmy-tyrant: Noted only at LS, 1 on 5th.

Northern Bentbill: Noted on 3 days with at least 2 at CR on 2nd & 3rd, heard LS on 5th.

Common Tody-flycatcher: Noted on 7 days with a pair at Fortuna on 25th, 1 at AR on 26th, 2 at Tarcoles bridge on 1st, 1 CR on 2nd, several CR on 3rd, several Villa Lapas on 4th, 2 LS on 5th.

Yellow-olive Flycatcher: Noted on 4 days, several each day, 1st -4th.

Northern Royal-flycatcher: Noted only at CR, a pair nesting on 2nd.

Black-tailed Flycatcher: Noted only at CR, 1 on 3rd.

Tufted Flycatcher: Noted on 3 days with ones & twos SO on 4th, and TL on 7th & 8th.

Dark Pewee: Noted on 2 days, singles on 25th and at TA on 9th.

Yellowish Flycatcher: Noted only at SO, 1 on 4th.

Black-capped Flycatcher: Noted on 3 days, ones & twos at TL on 7th & 9th, Finca on 8th.

Black Phoebe: Noted on 4 days with ones & twos seen near fast-flowing streams & rivers, SO on 4th, TL on 7th & 8th, TA on 9th.

Long-tailed Tyrant: Noted on 2 days at LS with 2 on 5th, 1 on 6th.

Bright-rumped Attila: Noted on 5 days, 1 seen CR on 2nd & heard calling there on 3rd & 4th, 2 LS on 5th, 1 SV on 6th.

Rufous Mourner: Noted only at LS, at least 2 on 6th.

Dusky-capped Flycatcher: Noted on 5 days with a pair at AR on 25th & 26th, 1 CR on 3rd, 1 or 2 LS on 5th & 6th.

Great Crested Flycatcher: Noted only near Tarcoles estuary, 1 on 2nd.

Brown-crested Flycatcher: Noted on 4 days, several at PV on 26th - 1st.

Great Kiskadee: Noted most days.

Boat-billed Flycatcher: Noted on 2 days with 1 PV on 27th, 1 LS on 5th.

Social Flycatcher: Noted on 7 days at AR on 25th, at least 6 Villa Lapas on 2nd - 4th, LS on 5th & 6th, SV on 4th & 7th.

Grey-capped Flycatcher: Noted on 3 days at Villa Lapas on 4th, LS on 5th & 6th.

Streaked Flycatcher: Noted on 3 days with several pairs on 2nd - 4th.

Piratic Flycatcher: Noted only on 1 day, 1 on 25th.

Tropical Kingbird: Noted most days.

Scissor-tailed Flycatcher: Noted on 3 days with 2 PV on 28th, at least 12 during day on 1st, 5 going to roost San Jose on 9th.

Cinnamon Becard: Noted on 2 days at LS, up to 2 on 5th & 6th.

White-winged Becard: Noted only at CR, a male on 3rd.

Rose-throated Becard: Noted on 3 days with 2 at PV & 1 at refuge on 1st, a pair CR on 2nd, a female in park on 4th.

Masked Tityra: Noted on 4 days with 2 beside bus near Tarcoles estuary on 2nd, 1 Villa Lapas on 4th, a pair LS on 5th & 6th.

Black-crowned Tityra: Noted on 2 days, 1 near Tarcoles estuary on 2nd, 1 LS on 5th.

Manakins

White-collared Manakin: Noted only at LS, a female on 5th.

Orange-collared Manakin: Noted on 3 days with several females CR on 2nd, c.6 males lekking CR on 3rd, a female Villa Lapas on 4th.

Blue-crowned Manakin: Noted only at CR, a female on 3rd.

Red-capped Manakin: Noted on 3 days with single females at CR on 2nd, LS on 5th, and LS on 6th.

Long-tailed Manakin: Noted on 2 days with 2 males Villa Lapas on 3rd & 4th.

Cotingas

Rufous Piha: Noted only at CR, 1 on 2nd.

Purple-throated Fruitcrow: Noted only at LS, c.6 on 5th.

Swallows & Martins

Mangrove Swallow: Noted on 4 days, several on 1st & 2nd, 2 LS on 5th, 2 SV on 6th.

Grey-breasted Martin: Noted on 2 days with 1 over Lake Arenal on 25th, 2 at Tarcoles bridge on 1st.

Blue-and-white Swallow: Noted on 7 days often in good numbers, 25th & 26th, 4th, & 6th - 9th.

Northern Rough-winged Swallow: Noted only on 1 day, 6 on roadside wires on 25th.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow: Noted on 5 days, often in good numbers, 25th -26th, 4th, 5th & 7th.

Barn Swallow: Noted on 8 days with a few on 25th, increasing numbers on 26th - 2nd, also on 4th & 6th.

Waxwings & Silky-Flycatchers

Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher: Noted on 3 days with up to 5 TL on 7th -9th.

Black-and-yellow Silky-flycatcher: Noted only at the Finca, 2 prs on 8th.

Dippers

American Dipper: Noted on 2 days with a pair displaying TL on 8th, a pair TA on 9th.

Wrens

Rufous-naped Wren: Noted on 6 days with a pair at Rancho Humo on 27th, several pairs PV on 28th, then each day 1st - 4th.

Band-backed Wren: Noted only at LS, at least 6 on 5th.

Black-throated Wren: Noted only at AR, heard on 25th.

Rufous-breasted Wren: Noted on 2 days with several at CR on 2nd & 3rd.

Riverside Wren: Noted only at CR, 2 on 3rd.

Bay Wren: Noted on 4 days, singles heard & seen at AR on 25th & 26th, LS on 5th & 6th.

Rufous-and-white Wren: Noted only at CR, a pair on 2nd.

Plain Wren: Noted on 3 days, heard singing at Tarcoles bridge on 1st, Villa Lapas on 2nd, LS on 6th.

House Wren: Noted on 5 days with heard singing at coffee stop on 25th, 1 at AR on 26th, 1 Villa Lapas on 4th, SO on 6th, singing TA on 9th.

Ochraceous Wren: Noted on 2 days with several at TL and Finca on 7th & 8th.

White-breasted Wood-wren: Noted on 2 days with 1 coming to nest at AR on 26th, 2 LS on 6th.

Grey-breasted Wood-wren: Noted on 2 days, heard at TL on 8th, seen TA on 9th.

Song Wren: Noted only on 1 day, heard at AR on 26th.

Mockingbirds & Thrashers

Grey Catbird: Noted on 2 days with singles LS on 5th & 6th.

Thrushes

Black-faced Solitaire: Noted on 2 days with several heard but not seen TL on 8th, several heard TL & TA on 9th.

Black-billed Nightingale-thrush: Noted on 3 days, regularly seen at TL on 7th -9th.

Ruddy-capped Nightingale-thrush: Noted only at TL, 1 on 8th.

Wood Thrush: Noted on 3 days, singles at AR on 26th, LS & SV on 5th & 6th.

Sooty Thrush / Robin: Noted on 3 days, regular at TL on 7th - 9th.

Mountain Thrush / Robin: Noted on 3 days, regular near TL on 7th -9th, TA on 9th.

Clay-coloured Thrush / Robin: Noted on 10 days.

Gnatwrens & Gnatcatchers

White-lored Gnatcatcher: Noted only at La Ensenada, 2 on 1st.

Tropical Gnatcatcher: Noted only at CR, 2 on 2nd.

Tawny-faced Gnatwren: Noted only at AR, 1 on 25th.

Long-billed Gnatwren: Noted on 2 days with singles at CR on 2nd & 3rd.

Crows, Jays & Magpies

Brown Jay: Noted on 5 days, several on 25th, 26th, 3rd, 4th & 6th.

White-throated Magpie-Jay: Noted on 4 days with at least 4 at PV on 26th & 28th, several on 1st including 2 stealing lunch scraps at La Ensenada.

New World Sparrows & Finches

Rufous-collared Sparrow: Noted on 5 days, many on 25th, 4th, 7th - 9th.

Volcano Junco: Noted only near TL, 2 on 7th.

Stripe-headed Sparrow: Noted on 2 days with 3 PV on 28th, 3 La Ensenada on 1st.

Blue-black Grassquit: Noted on 2 days with 1 at Tarcoles bridge on 1st, several on roadside on 2nd.

Variable Seedeater: Noted on 8 days, several seen on 25th, 26th, 2nd, 4th - 7th, 9th.

Yellow-faced Grassquit: Noted on 3 days with 2 on 25th, 1 at AR on 26th, several TA on 9th.

Orange-billed Sparrow: Noted on 4 days with ones & twos CR on 2nd & 3rd, LS on 5th, SV on 6th.

Black-striped Sparrow: Noted only at LS on 5th.

Yellow-throated Brush-finch: Noted only at SO on 4th.

Large-footed Finch: Noted on 3 days at TL on 7th - 9th.

Yellow-thighed Finch: Noted only at TL, 1 on 8th.

Cardinals & Grosbeaks

Rose-breasted Grosbeak: Noted on 2 days with 2 at AR on 26th, 3 males SO on 4th.

Black-faced Grosbeak: Noted on 3 days with at least 10 LS on 5th & 6th, 1 SV on 7th.

Buff-throated Saltator: Noted on 7 days with up to 5 at Fortuna & AR on 25th, AR on 26th, 1 CR on 2nd & 3rd, several Villa Lapas, LS & SO on 4th -6th.

Greyish Saltator: Noted on 2 days with 2 on 25th, and at AR on 26th.

Blue-black Grosbeak: Noted only at CR, a pair on 2nd.

Blue Grosbeak: Noted on 2 days with 1 near Villa Lapas on 1st, a pair on roadside near Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Painted Bunting: Noted on 2 days with a male Villa Lapas on 3rd & 4th.

Tanagers & Honeycreepers

Common Bush-tanager: Noted on 3 days with several SO on 4th & 6th, TA on 9th.

Sooty-capped Bush-tanager: Noted on 3 days with at least 6 roosting outside cabin TL on 7th, many at Finca & TL on 8th, several TL on 9th.

White-shouldered Tanager: Noted on 2 days at CR, singles on 2nd & 3rd.

White-lined Tanager: Noted on 2 days with 1 or 2 males LS on 5th & 6th.

Red-throated Ant-tanager: Noted on 2 days at SV & LS on 6th & 7th.

Summer Tanager: Noted on 6 days with 2 at AR on 25th, 1 Tarcoles bridge on 1st and near Tarcoles estuary on 2nd, a young male SO on 4th, at least 2 LS on 5th & 6th.

Western Tanager: Noted only at Villa Lapas, 1 on 4th.

Crimson-collared Tanager: Noted only at AR, 1 on 26th.

Passerini's (Scarlet-rumped) Tanager: Noted on 6 days on Caribbean slope, 25th, 26th, 4th - 6th, 9th.

Cherrie's (Scarlet-rumped) Tanager: Noted only near Tarcoles estuary, a pair on 2nd.

Blue-grey Tanager: Noted on 7 days.

Palm Tanager: Noted on 6 days, in particular a pair nest-building Villa Lapas on 4th.

Yellow-crowned Euphonia: Noted on 3 days with a pair at Tarcoles bridge on 1st, 2 males Villa Lapas on 2nd, 2 CR on 3rd.

Yellow-throated Euphonia: Noted on 2 days, several at Fortuna & AR on 25th & 26th.

Spot-crowned Euphonia: Noted only at CR, a female on 3rd.

Olive-backed Euphonia: Noted only at LS, at least 3 on 5th.

Tawny-capped Euphonia: Noted only at TA, a female on 9th.

Golden-browed Chlorophonia: Noted on 2 days with a pair SO on 4th & 6th.

Silver-throated Tanager: Noted only at SO, several on 4th.

Bay-headed Tanager: Noted on 5 days with ones & twos at AR on 26th, CR on 3rd, SO on 4th & 6th, LS on 5th,.

Golden-hooded Tanager: Noted on 4 days with at least 4 on feeding table at AR on 25th & 26th, 3 CR on 2nd, several LS on 5th.

Spangle-cheeked Tanager: Noted on 2 days with up to 6 at Finca on 8th & TA on 9th.

Scarlet-thighed Dacnis: Noted only at SO, a male on 4th.

Blue Dacnis: Noted on 2 days with 2 pairs LS on 5th, a pair SO on 6th.

Green Honeycreeper: Noted on 3 days with ones & twos CR on 3rd, LS on 5th & 6th.

Shining Honeycreeper: Noted on 3 days with pairs at CR on 3rd, LS on 5th & 6th.

Red-legged Honeycreeper: Noted on 4 days with pairs on 25th, at AR on 26th, Villa Lapas on 2nd, and 3 pairs at LS on 5th.

Slaty Flowerpiercer: Noted on 4 days with at least 1 SO on 4th, at least 3 males TL on 7th - 9th.

Bananaquit

Bananaquit: Noted on 4 days, 25th, 26th, SO on 4th, LS on 5th.

New World Warblers

Tennessee Warbler: Noted on 7 days, often quite regular, on 25th & 27th - 4th.

Flame-throated Warbler: Noted only at Finca, 2 males on 8th.

Tropical Parula: Noted on 3 days with 3 at AR on 26th, 2 CR on 3rd, 1 SO on 4th.

Black-and-white Warbler: Noted on 3 days, singles CR on 3rd, SO on 4th, LS on 5th.

Yellow Warbler: Noted on 9 days, 26th - 4th, 6th & 9th.

Chestnut-sided Warbler: Noted on 7 days with at least 10 at AR on 26th, then each day 2nd - 6th, 1 TA on 9th.

Black-throated Green Warbler: Noted on 4 days, singles at AR on 26th, SO on 4th, TL on 7th, Finca on 8th.

American Redstart: Noted only on 1 day, a male at CR on 2nd.

Northern Waterthrush: Noted on 5 days with 1 at PV on 26th, 2 during day on 1st, several during day on 2nd, 1 CR on 3rd, 1 Villa Lapas on 4th.

Prothonotary Warbler: Noted on 2 days with 3 PV on 28th, 3 Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Grey-crowned Yellowthroat: Noted on 2 days with 1 near La Ensenada on 1st, 1 near Tarcoles estuary on 2nd.

Kentucky Warbler: Noted only at CR, 1 on 2nd.

Wilson's Warbler: Noted on 4 days, several at SO on 4th, TL and Finca on 7th - 9th.

Slate-throated Redstart: Noted on 2 days with 2 SO on 4th, several TA on 9th.

Collared Redstart: Noted on 3 days, at TL on 7th & 9th, at least 8 Finca & TL on 8th.

Buff-rumped Warbler: Noted on 2 days at LS, 2 on 5th & 6th.

Three-striped / -banded Warbler: Noted only at TA, 1 on 9th.

Vireos

Yellow-winged Vireo: Noted on 2 days, several TL on 7th, 2 at Finca & 2 TL on 8th.

Yellow-throated Vireo: Noted on 2 days with 2 PV on 28th, 2 CR on 2nd.

Philadelphia Vireo: Noted on 2 days with 1 Villa Lapas on 2nd & 4th.

Lesser Greenlet: Noted on 3 days with several CR & Villa Lapas on 2nd - 4th.

Finches

Yellow-bellied Siskin: Noted only on 1 day, a flock of at least 10 TL on 7th.

Old World Sparrows

House Sparrow: Noted on 2 days, at Fortuna on 25th and Puerto Viejo on 6th.

New World Orioles & Blackbirds

Chestnut-headed Oropendola: Noted on 4 days, several briefly SO on 4th, 1 seen well LS on 5th & 6th, a small nesting colony in a tree near TA on 9th.

Montezuma Oropendola: Noted on 7 days with 2 colonies & a small flock on roadside bank on 25th, several from bus on 26th, many each day 4th - 7th, 2 TA on 9th.

Scarlet-rumped Cacique: Noted only on 1 day, at least 2 at SV & LS on 6th.

Yellow-billed Cacique: Noted on 2 days with several seen well LS on 5th & 6th.

Yellow-tailed Oriole: Noted on 2 days with 2 pairs LS on 5th & 6th.

Streak-backed Oriole: Noted on 3 days with at least 3 PV on 27th - 1st.

Baltimore Oriole: Noted on 6 days with up to 3 at San Jose & AR on 25th, PV on 28th, La Ensenada on 1st, during day on 2nd, Villa Lapas on 4th, SV on 6th.

Black-cowled Oriole: Noted on 3 days with a male SO on 4th, a pair LS on 5th & 6th.

Red-winged Blackbird: Noted only at PV, a flock of c.100 from boat on 27th.

Eastern Meadowlark: Noted on 4 days with 2 on roadside on 25th, 1 beside road PV on 28th, 1 at lunch on 1st, 1 behind garage on 7th.

Great-tailed Grackle: Noted most days.

Bronzed Cowbird: Noted on 2 days, 25th & 26th.

MAMMALS:

Common Opossum: Noted only at Villa Lapas & Tarcoles, 3 spot-lit on 3rd.

Brown Tent-making Bat: 1 under leaf at CR on 3rd.

White-throated / White-faced Capuchin: Noted on 4 days, several at PV on 26th - 28th, and at CA on 2nd.

Mantled Howler Monkey: Noted on 7 days with 2 parties including a nice male feeding over the road on 25th, regularly seen and heard each day 26th -1st, and at LS on 5th & 6th.

Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth: Noted only at LS, two adults and baby on 5th.

Nine-banded Armadillo: Noted on 3 days, singles at PV on 28th & 1st, CA on 3rd.

Northern Tamandua: Noted on 2 days at LS, on 5th & 6th.

Red-tailed Squirrel: 2 at AR on 26th, 1 or 2 SO on 4th & 6th.

Variegated Squirrel: Noted on 9 days, regular.

Central American Dwarf Squirrel: Singles at TL on 7th.

Central American Agouti: Noted at CA on 2nd & 3rd.

White-nosed Coati: Noted on 7 days with a male alongside the bus on 25th, singles at PV on 26th, 28th, & 1st, from the veranda on 4th & 6th, LS on 5th.

Collared Peccary: 1 at PV on 26th, CA on 2nd, and at least 6 LS on 6th.

White-tailed Deer: 2 with bambi at PV on 26th.

Rabbit species: 1 in spot-lamp at PV on 27th.

AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES:

Rain Frog species (Eleutherodactylus sp.): 1 in the bath at PV on 26th!

Mudpuddle Frog (Physalaemus pustulosus): Noted at Villa Lapas on 1st & 2nd.

Green Poison-arrow Frog (Dendrobates auratus): Several at SV on 7th & 8th.

Red-and-blue Poison-arrow Frog / Blue-jeans Frog (Dendrobates pumilio): Several at SV on 7th.

Spectacled Cayman (Caiman crocodilus): 1 at CA lagoon on 2nd.

American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus): Noted on 3 days with several small ones PV on 27th, lots of large ones PV on 28th & Tarcoles estuary on 2nd!

Black River Turtle (Rhinoclemmys funerea): Noted in forest streams at LS & SV on 5th & 6th.

Roadguard (Conophis lineatus): 1 at La Ensenada on 1st.

Central American Coral Snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus): 1 at SV on 4th.

Yellowbelly Gecko (Phyllodactylus tuberculosus): Noted at Villa Lapas on 1st & 2nd.

Green Iguana (Iguana iguana): Noted on 5 days at PV, CA & SV, 26th, 28th - 2nd, 6th.

Ctenosaur / Black Iguana (Ctenosuara similis): Noted on 7 days at PV, CA & SV, 26th - 4th.

Basilisk / Jesus Christ Lizard (Basiliscus basiliscus): Noted on 4 days at PV & SV on 28th & 2nd - 4th.

Common Anole (Norops polylepis): Several at LS on 5th & 6th.

Central American Whiptail (Ameiva festiva): Many at LS on 5th & 6th.

BUTTERFLIES, in no particular order, included:

Various Swallowtails Papilio sp., Heliconius sp., Sulphurs Phoebis sp. were seen, together with the Blue Morpho Morpho amathonte, Cracker Hamadryas feronia, Cappuccino, and Cooker butterflies.

Highlights? - Well, I could mention about 300 of them! But I suppose if my arm was really twisted, it has to be the Sunbitterns at Selva Verde and the Quetzals at Trogon Lodge. Mind you, the Sungrebes at La Selva, the Laguna de Mata Redonda and the Waterfall Gardens with those humming-bird feeders are all etched in my memory. I do hope that you have all returned home with your own memories.

Thank you to Maurice for his inexhaustible knowledge of the natural history of his country, to Henry for his excellent driving and spotting skills (often simultaneously!) and to Horizontes for putting it all together and ensuring everything ran smoothly and for the really excellent farewell dinner.

I do hope to meet you all again in the not-too-distant future.

Keith Grant, March 2001.


© The Travelling Naturalist 2001