TRAVELLING NATURALIST TRIP REPORT

Crete

1 - 8 April 2000


Leaders:
Stephanie Coghlan

Jim Coghlan

DIARY

Saturday 1st April

We assembled at Heathrow at 5.00 a.m. for the 7.00 flight to Athens, but the check-in staff only gradually drifted in 40 minutes later. All things considered, a delayed take-off at about 7.35 was not too bad, but caused a late arrival in Athens.

When we emerged from the airport at 1.30 we were rapidly ushered on to a coach by our guide Lili who explained that the Acropolis closed at 2.30 on Saturdays with last entries at 2.15. After a dash through Athens under a warm but hazy sky, we arrived at the Acropolis at 2.00 and walked up through a winding avenue of olive trees to the sounds of Siskins and Goldfinches while Alpine Swifts flew overhead and we had our first views of Sardinian Warbler Lili, a truly inspirational guide and interpreter of history and archaeology, brought the stones of the Parthenon to life for us. Views of Athens from the top were impressive, but limited by the prevailing haze. Gradually marshalled out by the custodians as closing time approached, we thought the visit worthwhile and long enough for us to enjoy.

Back to the coach then, and on through the city to the old Royal Palace just in time for the changing of the guard in their traditional blue jackets, red caps, white kilts and leggings, and red clogs with pom-poms who moved with a unique slow march. A brief look at the stone tiered Olympic Stadium re-built in 1896 for the revived Olympics. Herod Atticus refurbished it in 2AD using Pendelic marble, and it was rediscovered in 1868. Then a drive through the city centre where some glimpsed a Magpie, which is not a bird to be seen in Crete. Lili said farewell as she left us in the narrow streets of the old Plaka area below the Acropolis.

Refreshments were in order by this stage, as our last meal had been on the plane, and we enjoyed drinks and snacks in a shady square for an hour. Away again to the airport for our 6.30 p.m. flight to Chania which was delayed to 7.20. A short flight across the sea to Crete and we finally landed in deep dusk at 8.00. There was a fast delivery of luggage and Zakarios, our driver for the week and a friend from last year, soon had us on board the coach and on our way through Chania to the Aegean Palace Hotel at Gerani for 9.00 p.m. Friendly hotel staff swept us in to a splendid first hot dinner in Crete, and as it later turned out, the first dinner of the year as the hotel had only opened that day for the season.

A long day, especially for those who had travelled through the night as well, but we had enjoyed the tour of Athens. And so to bed.

Sunday 2nd April

A lovely spring day - hot, clear and sunny, and we had our first sight of the green Cretan landscape under a blue sky with a backdrop of high snow-covered mountains before setting off at 9.15 for a series of local tours. The Tavronitis river produced Buzzard and Alpine Swift as well as a range of waders which included Snipe, Greenshank, Little Stint, Ringed Plover and a set of sandpipers: Common, Wood and Green. By the river there were Crown Daisies and Bermuda Buttercup and we saw Clouded Yellow butterflies and a large Balkan Green lizard on the stones. In the village of Tavronitis, we had a coffee break under the awning of a taverna while some large straw sun hats were purchased. We were reminded of the imminent national elections when a candidate turned up to shake the hands of local voters and to beam kindly at us visitors. We rapidly sped on our way however, when he set up his public address system on the other half of the taverna frontage and started on his manifesto.

Enormous lunch boxes were opened at the Evelpidon monument where we saw Wheatear, Stonechat and Raven. Continuing on, we explored Afrata and its small gorge going down towards the sea where we watched Kestrels disputing territory, and saw Blue Rock Thrushes singing on the cliffs. Returning, some of the party heard Scops Owl calling from the valley. The roadside verges were very fine for flowers and insects and there were Speckled Wood, Painted Lady and Small Copper butterflies, fennel and broomrape amongst the flowers, and hornets.

The party shared its custom between two tavernas for coffees and beer and then back to the hotel for a walk to the sea before the log and dinner, where we are almost the sole occupants of the hotel.

Monday 3rd April

A 7.00 walk set off towards the shore under a still blue sky with a calm sea. Cetti's Warbler was heard, two Snipe were flushed from the side of the path, and Sardinian Warbler was seen. Some Swallows and a Marsh Harrier flew west and a single Wheatear was seen.

After breakfast we set off to Agia reservoir. There were interesting views of a selection of water birds including Coots in large numbers, Moorhens - one drowned and eaten by a Herring Gull, a selection of waders including Wood Sandpiper and Black-winged Stilt, and Squacco Heron, and a rare (for Crete) pair of Mallard. We continued up into the mountains to the Omalos plateau and stopped at a taverna for morning coffee and some botanising, which located Romulaea (sand crocus), Yellow Star of Bethlehem and Widow Iris, while Wood Lark, Cirl Bunting and Woodchat Shrike made appearances. We had lunch at the head of the Samaria Gorge in warm and unusually wind-free conditions where we saw Chough, dark-phase Booted Eagle and heard a distant Scops Owl calling in the ravine below. No Lammergeier, unfortunately.

A flower stop on the meadows below the summit located fine examples of the endemic Chionodoxa Cretica and the Cretan Tulip amid the carpets of Crown Anemones. The swallow hole pool on the route back was both empty of birds and very windy and cool so we moved on to stop on the ridge above Agia Irini where we could see sea on both the south and the north coasts. A Booted Eagle flew up from the south and continued steadily on its way northwards. The leaders confidently identified a very distant flat-winged bird as a Griffon Vulture but the group politely deferred judgement. Back to the hotel for a log, dinner and study of the many identification guides.

Tuesday 4th April

A still morning with a calm sea. The early beach walk flushed Snipe and two Quail from the field by the road side.

After breakfast we left for Chania where screaming groups of Swifts dashed overhead, but the harbour area was very quiet so we split into small groups to explore the bookshops, market and the narrow streets of the old town. Don investigated the Battle of Crete exhibit in the Nautical Museum on the waterfront and reported it to be well worth a visit. After coffee at a harbour-side taverna, we drove to the park area at the Venizelou graves overlooking the town, and had our lunch when a couple of school parties had left. We continued past the airport out on the Akrotiri peninsula and the monastery of Moni Gouvernetou where it became overcast with a few brief drops of rain. There was a good display of orchids and we found Subalpine Warbler and Blue Rock Thrush. Some of the party got almost to the beach level and the third monastery before we turned back.

We called in to Agia Triada monastery on the way back to see the Church and look at the small shop. As we left, there was huge excitement when we found a mixed flock of Lesser Kestrels and Red-footed Falcons flying from tree to tree at the far end of one of the monastery's pruned vine fields. We watched for a long time before reluctantly leaving for home. Here we found that our solitude as almost the only hotel residents has also been affected by migrant movements: some more parties have arrived and meals have been moved from the lounge area with its sea views to the lower main dining room. The evening log proved a little difficult due to the general hum of conversation.

Wednesday 5 April

The weather changed completely overnight, and we woke to the sound of howling wind and rattling doors at about 2.30 a.m. It continued to sound wild with some mighty crashes heard, due in part to the balcony screen on Joan's room tearing off its fixing. A hot southerly Libyan wind from Africa met the 7.15 walkers; the air was murky grey and the mountains had vanished from view. However, the wild weather had started to bring down migrants. Clouds of small birds, mainly Yellow Wagtails, flew back and forth at the shore, which was slightly more sheltered. We flushed Snipe, Quail and a single Stone Curlew as we walked, and then had the pleasure of seeing an Osprey fly overhead.

After breakfast, we drove again to Agia reservoir through groves heavily laden with the large tree-ripened oranges we had come to like so much, and past the orange packing stations where the season was in full swing. Here it was hot, humid, windy and even a slight hint of rain on the wind but it did remain dry. The bird population had changed considerably since our previous visit and many of the Coots had moved on. A good selection was seen, including Garganey , both Sedge and Great Reed warblers, Woodchat Shrikes had arrived and we had excellent views of both Little Crake and Spotted Crake.

From Agia the coach took us on the impressive road through the Therisso gorge to Therisso village. As the gorge faces northwards, it was much more sheltered from the wind and we had our picnic lunch outside the church near the Elevtherios memorial. Coffees followed at the taverna, and a brief visit to the small Museum which had a selection of interesting photos from the Battle of Crete. A British walking party, who had just completed a loop walk through the mountains, also arrived. To their regret we were unable to put an exact name to "a bird like a baby robin but with yellow below" which they had seen along the way. While the bus waited for an hour or so, we walked down the road through the gorge, following the river which is lined by water-loving Plane trees. The "wild and dramatic" (Blue Guide to Crete) gorge is indeed so at close quarters, and we had views of Blue Rock Thrush, Raven and Buzzard along the way. Barry was adopted by a bleating and very lost kid goat along the way, and it finally left us with great reluctance.

Back at the hotel, the wind was still quite strong but cooler and more westerly, and light shirts and shorts were not quite warm enough when some walked to the shore. Large numbers of Yellow Wagtails had arrived, as had Wheatears, more Woodchat Shrikes and Tawny Pipits. We had a quieter log at the hotel before dinner, as the other parties in the hotel had descended to dinner. The evening became cool and fresh and the stars were visible as we made our way back after dinner.

Thursday 6 April

A cool fresh morning with a light westerly wind and the mountains have reappeared but with much less snow than before yesterday's hot wind. It was also clear enough to see the sunrise at 7.10. The morning walk produced Yellow Wagtails in the hotel car park, a Fan-tailed Warbler singing in the fields, and good views of a Wryneck feeding on the ground by the side of the sandy beach road. The shore fields produced more Woodchat Shrikes and Whinchat and a flock of Short-toed Larks.

After breakfast we set off at 9.00 for a grand coach tour through the mountains to the south coast. Following the coast road to the east we passed Chania and along the mimosa-lined side of the great harbour of Souda Bay where a small column of naval vessels was heading out to sea. Turning off on to the south we climbed the twisting road to the Askifou pass and saw the change from the olive trees at the coast level to the rougher uplands with its low cypress trees. We stopped at the high plateau village of Imbros and settled ourselves with coffees outside one of the tavernas and waited for raptors. Promptly at 10.30 a number of Griffon Vultures started to float up over the mountain ridge from the south, banking into low fleecy cloud and blue sky. As we watched, we also had good views of Corn Buntings perched on the wires of the fields below us. More and more vultures started to join the first, and finally there were as many as 10 which worked their way around and came down to explore the lower slopes behind us.

There was cloud on the main mountain ridge as we headed on down through the good but winding road of the Imbros Gorge through sparse Hedgehog Garrigue vegetation. Some caught glimpses of black and white as a probable Black-eared Wheatear crossed the road. Down to the spectacular coastline of red stone cliffs and on to the fort of Frangocastello for a quick look at the fort and a scan of the very empty dark blue sea which was full of white horses all along the coast. A short distance on we had a walk across the coastal plain to the sea, sighting more Corn Buntings, White and Yellow-headed Wagtails, Stonechat and yet more Woodchat Shrikes which now seem to have arrived everywhere. It was too windy to picnic there, so we drove on to Skaloti for a late lunch at 1.50. The picnic spot had a good selection of flowers including a much-photographed Spider Orchid.

On along the coast road through small villages with constant fine coastal scenery to stop after Sellia at the foot of the Kotsifos Gorge. Ravens and Crag Martins were seen and distant Griffon Vulture. The true scale of the cliffs above was revealed when a black object on the ridge, being considered as a possible raven or vulture, turned and showed the profile of a goat instead.

Through the gorge and travelling northwards now, we stopped at the Late Minoan Cemetery at Armeni which unfortunately was still operating its winter schedule and had closed at 2.30. However we were able to look though the fence at the nearest rock tombs, and could also see Italian Orchid inside the gates and Giant Orchid outside.

Past Rethymnon on the coast we headed west again beside a "wine-dark sea" on the last stage of our journey and arrived at the hotel at 5.30.

We were entertained at dinner by a group of four Cretan dancers in traditional dress and their musicians, who then persuaded us to join in some Greek dancing. Only two of the party (and not the leaders) took the extra opportunity to do some solo table-top dancing, and something involving picking up a cup from the floor with the teeth. We were rewarded for our efforts with a free sample of Raki - the local spirit - which sent us happily to bed.

Friday 7th April

The morning walk produced a good last display of the local Italian Sparrows, Greenfinch, Blackbird, Sardinian and Cetti's Warblers and Crested Larks. The Wryneck and Woodchat were still in the same areas and the Stone Curlew was seen settled on the beach in the sunlight. After breakfast we loaded the bus and departed. A stop at Souda Bay War cemetery at last produced Grey Heron and Little Egret, Serins were seen well, Common Sandpiper was on the shore; a few saw a Kingfisher perched briefly on a pole and there were many good Tongue orchids.

Georgioupoli Lake, our next stop and full again after last year's draining, showed flocks of Sand Martins skimming the water and Moorhens and Little Grebes in good numbers. At Lake Kourna we settled at a lakeside taverna, and were promptly provided with a flagon of Raki on the house before any orders were taken. The attractive lake could only produce a few Coot, Little Egret and Little Grebe.

Our whistle-stop tour continued at the Petres river bridge where we stood among the Bee orchids and had views of Griffon Vulture and Raven, and waders and wagtails in the river below. We had our picnic lunch at a wayside chapel near Panorama seated in the shady olive groves with delightful views of valleys and hills stretching away to the mountains in the island centre.

At Knossos we had a guided tour of the famous reconstructed site where the Minoan ladies in some of the frescoes seemed to have a family resemblance to one of our waitresses at the Aegean Palace.

Finally we came to the Creta Sun at Gouves, now run as a club with all activities and facilities included in the room rate: even the bar was free as well as the wines or beers for meals. A huge range of delightful food presented us with additional dilemmas of choice, and it was probably good for the wellbeing of all that we were only staying one night and that at the end of the tour..... We enjoyed the glorious sea views outside the lounge while we did the log.

Saturday 8th April

The 7.15 walk by a small group headed across the marshy area to the east of the hotel, while a watch was kept on a line of threatening showers approaching across the bay. Swallows flew west, and there were waders in the sandy pools. A pair of Greater Flamingos was seen in the region of the river lagoon, and further investigation was postponed to avoid flushing them. During breakfast the threatened showers arrived and there was a torrential downpour.

After breakfast and final packing, the weather had cleared and it became sunny although the heavy rain had turned the surface of the marshy area into red clinging clay. Sea watching from the hotel sea front showed both Cory's and Mediterranean Shearwaters flying in the vicinity of the island of Dia. The Flamingoes were reported to have headed out to sea but there was a good variety of birds on the flats. Ruff and Marsh Sandpiper were well seen, and a Stone Curlew made repeated appearances during the morning. At the river bank a juvenile Night Heron was found, a Black-tailed Godwit flew off and then just as we turned to go the Greater Flamingos were found again, swimming in the sea - vanishing intermittently as they bobbed up and down in the waves. A fine example of Woodcock Orchid was found and gave a final opportunity for a few photographs.

Back then to the hotel for lunch and a final log which produced a total of 96 bird species, 75 of which were common to last year's list with 21 extra species written in.

A popularity poll indicated that the best bird was Spotted Crake , and the best site was Omalos Plateau, with Agia and Therisso and Imbros Tour days in joint second place.

Finally Zakarios collected us to drive past the purple Judas trees and the yellow Mimosa to the airport for the flight home.

Stephanie & Jim Coghlan

SPECIES LISTS

BIRDS

Little Grebe 20 + at Ayia reservoir on 3.4. and 5.4. 7 at Georgioupolis and 3 at lake Kournas on 7.4.

Cory's Shearwater A few reported off Aegean Palace 5.4. Seen by everyone off Dia island from Creta Sun Gouves on 8.4.

Mediterranean Shearwater Several off Dia island on 8.4.

Shag One to 3 recorded off the coast at Aegean Palace, Gerani.

Cormorant One in Souda bay on 7.4.

Grey Heron Only two records both in Souda Bay on 7.4.

Little Egret First records 4.4. and singles on 7th at Souda Bay, Georgioupolis and Lake Kournas. One or two at Aposelemis river on 8.4.

Squacco Heron Recorded as singles at Ayia reservoir on 3rd and 5th.

Black crowned Night Heron One juvenile at Aposelemis river on 8.4.

Greater Flamingo One adult and one juvenile at Gouves lagoon and seen later swimming on the sea.

Mallard 2 at Ayia and 7 there 5.4.

Garganey 14 at Ayia on 5.4 and 2 on Aposelemis river 8.4.

Griffon Vulture Only distant views obtained on 2.4. and 3.4. of 1-2. 10 + over Imbros at coffee stop on 6th.

Marsh Harrier Sightings daily of passage birds from 2.4.to 5.4.

Common Buzzard Resident birds recorded in pairs daily including display flights.

Booted Eagle 6 birds on passage throughout 3.4.

Kestrel Common recorded daily from 6 to 2.

Lesser Kestrel A small flock feeding in the vineyard at Agia Triada Monastery on the 4.4. Up to 8.

Red-footed Falcon Up to 4 with the Lesser Kestrels.

Osprey A passage bird flying west early morning on 5.4 at Gerani.

Little Crake 2 seen well at Ayia a female and a juvenile on 5.4

Spotted Crake One on the stream at Ayia, seen well from the bridge on 5.4

Common Coot 50 at Ayia on 3.4. and 5.4. Small number at Georgioupolis and 3 at Lake Kournas on 7.4.

Black winged Stilt Single at Ayia 3.4. and 5.4.

Stone Curlew 2+ on beach at Aegean Palace on 5.4. 1 there 7.4. and 2 at Gouves lagoon on 8.4.

Little Ringed Plover Common in ones and twos at rivers and on the beach.

Ringed Plover Single on passage at Tavronitis on 2.4.

Marsh Sandpiper One at Gouves Lagoon on 8.4.

Greenshank One at Tavronitis and one at Gouves lagoons were the only records.

Green Sandpiper One at Tavronitis on 2.4.

Wood Sandpiper Common in small numbers at Tavronitis, Ayia, and Gouves lagoon.

Common Sandpiper Common in ones and twos at rivers and on the coast.

Little Stint Small flocks one to six at Tavronitis and Gouves lagoon.

Snipe Singles and twos at Aegean Palace beach and also recorded at Gouves lagoon.

Black tailed Godwit single at Gouves lagoon

Rock Dove/ Feral Pigeon True Rock Dove seen in Kotsiphos gorge otherwise feral pigeons common

Collared Dove Seen in towns only, Chania, Rethymnon and Iraklion areas.

Scops Owl heard at Afrata and in Samaria Gorge

Alpine Swift Small flocks moving through 1.4.3.4. the 1-2 on 5.4. and 6.4.

Common Swift First recorded in Chania on the 3.4. in large flocks. Then daily.

Kingfisher Single in Souda bay on 7.4.

Hoopoe Seen briefly from the bus on the way back from Omalos on 3.4. and one on 6.4. at Souda Bay.

Quail Seen and heard at Aegean Palace beach on the early morning walks.

Chukar Partridge 3 pairs seen and heard on Akrotiri on 4.4.

Wryneck one at Aegean Palace beach on 6.4 and two the following morning in the same area.

Short-toed Lark Brief views of possible birds at Aegean Palace but good views for all the group at Aposelemis river on 8.4.

Crested Lark Common

Woodlark Singing birds on Omalos on 3.4. and Akrotiri on 4.4. 1 heard on the Imbros - Frangocastello tour.

Sand Martin First record on 5.4. at Ayia then over 100 at Georgioupolis on 7.4. and a few at Aposelemis river on 8.4.

Crag Martin Small flocks of 2-10 in the mountains at Omalos, Imbros and Kotsiphos Gorges as well as at sea level at Petres Gorge.

Barn Swallow Common daily in small numbers

House Martin Small numbers seen with other hirundines 1.4. and 2.4. and 5.7.4.

Yellow Wagtail Singles at Tavronitis and Aegean Palace and then a movement of over 500 on the morning of 5.4. and at Ayia with the hot southern wind on the same day.

White Wagtail Singles only from 4.4.

Tawny Pipit 3 regulars at Aegean Palace beach

Tree Pipit Small flock of 6 at Aegean Palace Beach

Meadow Pipit Singles at up to 5 at Aegean Palace beach during the week. One at Aposelemis river 8.8.

Woodchat Shrike First recorded 3.4. and then several recorded everyday. Largest number 10 on 6.4.

Wren Common in the mountains.

Blue Rock Thrush Recorded in the gorges at Afrata, Therisso, Akrotiri and Kotsiphos.

Blackbird Common

Song Thrush One heard and seen on first two days at Aegean Palace but then it moved on.

Nightingale Heard and seen at Ayia on 3.4. and 5.4.

Whinchat Recorded daily but only in singles

Stonechat Common already breeding.

Northern Wheatear Seen everyday 1-3 and over 10 recorded on passage on 5.4.

Black-eared Wheatear First record 2 on 6.4.

Fan-tailed Warbler One seen and heard on Aegean Palace beach 5.4. and 6.4.

Cetti's Warbler Common heard frequently everyday.

Sedge Warbler Singles at Ayia 3.4. and 5.4. and at Georgioupolis 7.4.

Blackcap Ones and twos on passage at Aegean Palace Beach from 2.4.

Sardinian Warbler Common breeding bird in all habitats.

Subalpine Warbler A pair on Akrotiri 4.5.

Chiffchaff 2 on 6.4. at Frangocastello

Willow Warbler Small numbers at Ayia reservoir 3.4.

Wood Warbler One at Therisso 5.4.

Collared Flycatcher One at Frangocastello

Great Tit Common

Blue Tit Common

Red-billed Chough A flock of 15 over Samaria Gorge on 3.5.

Jackdaw Only recorded at Kotsiphos Gorge on 6.4.

Hooded Crow Common daily

Common Raven Recorded in ones and twos almost daily.

Cirl Bunting Singing male on Omalos 3.4. and on Akrotiri 4.4.

Corn Bunting Singing males at Imbros and Frangocastello 6.4.

Chaffinch Common

European Serin Singing at Aegean Palace beach and at Souda bay

Green finch Common

Goldfinch Common in small flocks

Linnet Small flocks in the mountains

Italian Sparrow Common nesting everywhere

Exotics

Peacock at Moni Gonias at Kolimbari

Pheasant heard at Frangocastello

Canary at Afrata

Greylag Goose at Lake Kournas

Myna Bird at Knossos.

Amphibians

Common Tree frog Hyla arborea Recorded at Agia reservoir.

Cretan Frog Rana cretensis Heard at the hotel pool every night and at wet areas in the daytime.

Dice Snake Seen swimming in Ayia reservoir near the dam on 5.4.

Reptiles

Balkan Green Lizard Lacerta trilineata Adults and the brown striped young recorded nearly everyday.

Stripe-necked Terrapin Mauremys caspica Seen in good numbers at Agia and at Georgioupolis and the Aposelemis river.

INSECTS

Egyptian Grasshopper

Hungarian Grasshopper

Carpenter Bee

Pollen Beetle

Shield Bug

Dionconatus crunetatus

Lygeus pandurus

Green Tiger Beetle

Liparus glabrirostris

Cretan Soldier Beetle

Dung Beetle

Weevil sp.

Pill Woodlouse

7 Spot Ladybird

2 spot Ladybird

Blue-tailed Damselfly

BUTTERFLIES

Scarce swallowtail

Large White

Small White

Clouded Yellow

Cleopatra

Small Copper

Holly Blue

Red Admiral

Mediterranean Speckled Wood

Wall Brown

ARACHNIDS

Mediterranean Scorpion Iurus dufoureius Brown or black up to 17cm long prefer wet & warm places and dig burrows.

SNAILS

Cretan Door Snail Albinaria inflata Recorded on rocks and cliffs in gorges.

MAMMALS

Beech Marten dead on road was the only mammal recorded.

Plant List - Some highlights from the 1999 & 2000 trips

Numbers refer to Grey-Wilson & Blamey "Mediterranean Wild Flowers"

Urtica pilulifera Roman Nettle 48

Salicornia sp. Samphire 85

Silene behen Catchfly 168

Silene colorata 180

Kohlrauschia velutina Proliferous pink 187

Anemone coronaria Crown anemone 211

Anemone heldreichii 215

Anemone blanda Wind anemone 216

Adonis microcarpa Yellow Pheasant's eye 222

Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine 252a

Ranunculus ficaroides 253

Ranunculus asiaticus Turban buttercup 257

Paeonia clusii Clusius' peony 271

Glaucium flavum Yellow horned poppy 293

Fumaria sp. Fumitory 300

Ricotia cretica Ricotia 319

Aubretia deltoidea Aubretia 324

Matthiola sinuata Sea Stock 326

Matthiola tricuspidata Three-horned Stock 329

Biscutella didyma Biscutella 341

Brassica tourneforti Wild Cabbage 357

Sarcopoterium spinosum Thorny Burnet 411

Prunus dulcis Almond 421

Eriobotrya japonica Loquat 429

Cercis siliquastrum Judas tree 430

Ceratonia siliqua Carob, Locust Tree 431

Medicago marina Sea medicago 605

Trifolium fragiferum Strawberry clover 652

Trifolium stellatum Starry clover 662

Oxalis pes-caprae Bermuda Buttercup 735

Linum arboreum Tree Flax 769

Euphorbia dendroides 792

Euphorbia acanthothamnos Hedgehog spurge 794

Euphorbia characias 818

Ricinus communis Castor oil Plant 824

Citrus limon Lemon tree 832

C. sinensis Orange 836

C. paradisi Grapefruit 839

Melia azederach Indian Bead Tree 843

Cistus creticus Cretan Cistus 962

Cistus parviflorus Small-leaved Cistus 964

Cistus salvifolius Sage-leaved Cistus 965

Tuberaria guttata Spotted rockrose 985

Frankenia laevis Sea heath 1027

Bryonia cretica Cretan bryony 1033

Smyrnium connatum Yellow Alexanders 1092

Scandix pecten-veneris Shepherds needle 1097

Ferula communis Giant Fennel 1141

Tordylium apulum Tordylium 1149

Erica arborea Tree Heather 1178

Anagallis arvensis var. caeruleaBlue Pimpernel 1198

Cyclamen creticum Cretan cyclamen 1208

Limonium sinuatum Winged Sea Lavender 1220

Olea europea Olive 1248

Centaurium maritimum Seaside Centaury 1255

Buglossoides purpurocaerulea Purple Gromwell 1348

Echium italicum Italian echium 1380

Echium angustifolium Red echium 1382

Cynoglossum creticum Blue Houndstongue 1402

Anchusa variegata Anchusa 1415

Phlomis fruticosa Jeruslaem sage 1455

Lavandula stoechas French Lavender 1528

Hyoscamus niger Henbane 1556

Mandragora officinarum Mandrake 1574

Scrophularia lucida Figwort 1587

Verbascum arcturus Cretan mullein 1606

Bellardia trixago Bastard Balm 1653

Orobanche ramosa Branched broomrape 1655

Orobanche pubescens 1669

Orobanche crenata 1675

Phagnalon rupestre Shaving brush bush 1831

Chrysanthemum coronarium Crown Daisy 1895

Galactites tomentosa Galactites 1971

Silybum marianum Milk Thistle 1982

Centaurea solstitialis Yellow Star-thistle 1994

Tragopogon porrifolius Salsify 2055

Geropogon hybridus Small Salsify 2056

Asphodelus aestivus Asphodel 2089

Asphodeline lutea Yellow asphodeline 2092

Gagea graeca Greek Gagea 2102

Gagea fistulosa Yellow Gagea 2105

Tulipa bakeri Tulip 2146

Tulipa cretica Cretan tulip 2147

Chionodoxa cretica

Ornithogalum sp. 2160

Muscari comosum Tassel hyacinth 2201

Allium roseum Rosy garlic 2224

Allium ampeloprasum Wild leek 2237

Iris tuberosus Widow Iris 2283

Iris cretensis Cretan Iris 2285

Gynandriris sisyrinchium Barbary Nut Iris 2305

Gynandriris monophylla One-leaved Nut Iris 2306

Romulea bulbocodium Sand crocus 2314

Arum italicum 2361

Arisarum vulgare Friar's cowl 2377

Aceras anthropophorum Man orchid 2399

Dracunculus vulgaris Dragon arum 2358

Orchis papilionacea Pink butterfly orchid 2401

Orchis lactea Milky orchid 2408

Orchis italica Naked man orchid 2409

Orchis pauciflora Provence (Few-flowered) orchid 2417a

Orchis quadripunctata Four spotted orchid 2419

Ophrys lutea Yellow bee orchid 2423

Ophrys fusca Brown bee orchid 2424

Ophrys omegiphera 2424(a)

Ophrys mammosa Early spider orchid 2428

Ophrys spruneri Greek spider orchid 2429

Ophrys scolopax Woodcock orchid 2436

Ophrys tenthredinifera Sawfly orchid 2442

Barlia robertiana Giant orchid 2446

Lagurus ovatus Haresfoot grass 2473

Serapias lingua Tongue orchid 2451

Serapias parviflora Few-flowered Serapias 2452

Oxalis pes-caprae Bermuda buttercup

Eruca vesicana

Raphanus raphanistrum Wild radish


© The Travelling Naturalist 2000